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87
Iterative point matching for registration of freeform curves and surfaces
, 1994
"... A heuristic method has been developed for registering two sets of 3D curves obtained by using an edgebased stereo system, or two dense 3D maps obtained by using a correlationbased stereo system. Geometric matching in general is a difficult unsolved problem in computer vision. Fortunately, in ma ..."
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Cited by 499 (6 self)
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A heuristic method has been developed for registering two sets of 3D curves obtained by using an edgebased stereo system, or two dense 3D maps obtained by using a correlationbased stereo system. Geometric matching in general is a difficult unsolved problem in computer vision. Fortunately, in many practical applications, some a priori knowledge exists which considerably simplifies the problem. In visual navigation, for example, the motion between successive positions is usually approximately known. From this initial estimate, our algorithm computes observer motion with very good precision, which is required for environment modeling (e.g., building a Digital Elevation Map). Objects are represented by a set of 3D points, which are considered as the samples of a surface. No constraint is imposed on the form of the objects. The proposed algorithm is based on iteratively matching points in one set to the closest points in the other. A statistical method based on the distance distribution is used to deal with outliers, occlusion, appearance and disappearance, which allows us to do subsetsubset matching. A leastsquares technique is used to estimate 3D motion from the point correspondences, which reduces the average distance between points in the two sets. Both synthetic and real data have been used to test the algorithm, and the results show that it is efficient and robust, and yields an accurate motion estimate.
Efficient Variants of the ICP Algorithm
 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON 3D DIGITAL IMAGING AND MODELING
, 2001
"... The ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm is widely used for geometric alignment of threedimensional models when an initial estimate of the relative pose is known. Many variants of ICP have been proposed, affecting all phases of the algorithm from the selection and matching of points to the minim ..."
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Cited by 461 (4 self)
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The ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm is widely used for geometric alignment of threedimensional models when an initial estimate of the relative pose is known. Many variants of ICP have been proposed, affecting all phases of the algorithm from the selection and matching of points to the minimization strategy. We enumerate and classify many of these variants, and evaluate their effect on the speed with which the correct alignment is reached. In order to improve convergence for nearlyflat meshes with small features, such as inscribed surfaces, we introduce a new variant based on uniform sampling of the space of normals. We conclude by proposing a combination of ICP variants optimized for high speed. We demonstrate an implementation that is able to align two range images in a few tens of milliseconds, assuming a good initial guess. This capability has potential application to realtime 3D model acquisition and modelbased tracking.
Fast and Globally Convergent Pose Estimation From Video Images
, 1998
"... Determining the rigid transformation relating 2D images to known 3D geometry is a classical problem in photogrammetry and computer vision. Heretofore, the best methods for solving the problem have relied on iterative optimization methods which cannot be proven to converge and/or which do not effecti ..."
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Cited by 113 (5 self)
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Determining the rigid transformation relating 2D images to known 3D geometry is a classical problem in photogrammetry and computer vision. Heretofore, the best methods for solving the problem have relied on iterative optimization methods which cannot be proven to converge and/or which do not effectively account for the orthonormal structure of rotation matrices. We show that the pose estimation problem can be formulated as that of minimizing an error metric based on collinearity in object (as opposed to image) space. Using object space collinearity error, we derive an iterative algorithm which directly computes orthogonal rotation matrices and which is globally convergent. Experimentally, we show that the method is computationally efficient, that it is no less accurate than the best currently employed optimization methods, and that it outperforms all tested methods in robustness to outliers. ChienPing Lu, Silicon Graphics Inc. cplu@engr.sgi.com y Greg Hager, Department of Computer...
New Algorithms for 2D and 3D Point Matching: Pose Estimation and Correspondence
"... A fundamental open problem in computer visiondetermining pose and correspondence between two sets of points in spaceis solved with a novel, fast [O(nm)], robust and easily implementable algorithm. The technique works on noisy 2D or 3D point sets that may be of unequal sizes and may differ by n ..."
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Cited by 85 (19 self)
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A fundamental open problem in computer visiondetermining pose and correspondence between two sets of points in spaceis solved with a novel, fast [O(nm)], robust and easily implementable algorithm. The technique works on noisy 2D or 3D point sets that may be of unequal sizes and may differ by nonrigid transformations. Using a combination of optimization techniques such as deterministic annealing and the softassign, which have recently emerged out of the recurrent neural network/statistical physics framework, analog objective functions describing the problems are minimized. Over thirty thousand experiments, on randomly generated points sets with varying amounts of noise and missing and spurious points, and on handwritten character sets demonstrate the robustness of the algorithm. Keywords: Pointmatching, pose estimation, correspondence, neural networks, optimization, softassign, deterministic annealing, affine. 1 Introduction Matching the representations of two images has long...
A comparison of four algorithms for estimating 3d rigid transformations
 In Proc. British Machine Vision Conference
, 1995
"... A common need in machine vision is to compute the 3D rigid transformation that exists between two sets of points for which corresponding pairs have been determined. In this paper a comparative analysis of four popular and efficient algorithms is given. Each computes the translational and rotational ..."
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Cited by 61 (1 self)
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A common need in machine vision is to compute the 3D rigid transformation that exists between two sets of points for which corresponding pairs have been determined. In this paper a comparative analysis of four popular and efficient algorithms is given. Each computes the translational and rotational components of the transform in closedform as the solution to a least squares formulation of the problem. They differ in terms of the representation of the transform and the method of solution, using respectively: singular value decomposition of a matrix, orthonormal matrices, unit quaternions and dual quaternions. This comparison presents results of several experiments designed to determine the (1) accuracy in the presence of noise, (2) stability with respect to degenerate data sets, and (3) relative computation time of each approach. 1
An Algorithmic Overview of Surface Registration . . .
 MEDICAL IMAGE ANALYSIS
, 2000
"... This paper presents a literature survey of automatic 3D surface registration techniques emphasizing the mathematical and algorithmic underpinnings of the subject. The relevance of surface registration to medical imaging is that there is much useful anatomical information in the form of collected ..."
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Cited by 60 (1 self)
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This paper presents a literature survey of automatic 3D surface registration techniques emphasizing the mathematical and algorithmic underpinnings of the subject. The relevance of surface registration to medical imaging is that there is much useful anatomical information in the form of collected surface points which originate from complimentary modalities and which must be reconciled. Surface registration
Object Pose from 2D to 3D Point and Line Correspondences
, 1995
"... In this paper we present a method for optimally estimating the rotation and translation between a camera and a 3D object from point and/or line correspondences. First we devise an error function and second weshowhowto minimize this error function. The quadratic nature of this function is made poss ..."
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Cited by 50 (9 self)
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In this paper we present a method for optimally estimating the rotation and translation between a camera and a 3D object from point and/or line correspondences. First we devise an error function and second weshowhowto minimize this error function. The quadratic nature of this function is made possible by representing rotation and translation with a dual number quaternion. We provide a detailed account of the computational aspects of a trustregion optimization method. This method compares favourably with Newton's method which has extensively been used to solve the problem at hand, with FaugerasToscani's linear method [6] for calibrating a camera, and with the LevenbergMarquardt nonlinear optimization method. Finally we present some experimental results which demonstrate the robustness of our method with respect to image noise and matching errors.
A Robust Point Matching Algorithm for Autoradiograph Alignment
, 1997
"... We present a novel method for the geometric alignment of autoradiographs of the brain. The method is based on finding the spatial mapping and the onetoone correspondences (or homologies) between point features extracted from the images and rejecting nonhomologies as outliers. In this way, we atte ..."
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Cited by 39 (12 self)
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We present a novel method for the geometric alignment of autoradiographs of the brain. The method is based on finding the spatial mapping and the onetoone correspondences (or homologies) between point features extracted from the images and rejecting nonhomologies as outliers. In this way, we attempt to account for the local natural and artifactual differences between the autoradiograph slices. We have executed the resulting automated algorithm on a set of left prefrontal cortex autoradiograph slices, specifically demonstrated its ability to perform point outlier rejection, validated it using synthetically generated spatial mappings and provided a visual comparison against the well known iterated closest point (ICP) algorithm. Visualization of a stack of aligned left prefrontal cortex autoradiograph slices is also provided.
Improved Rover State Estimation in Challenging Terrain
 Autonomous Robots
, 1998
"... . Given ambitious mission objectives and long delay times between commanduplink#datadownlink sessions, increased autonomy is required for planetary rovers. Speci#cally NASA's planned 2003 and 2005 Mars rover missions must incorporate increased autonomy if their desired mission goals are to be ..."
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Cited by 20 (10 self)
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. Given ambitious mission objectives and long delay times between commanduplink#datadownlink sessions, increased autonomy is required for planetary rovers. Speci#cally NASA's planned 2003 and 2005 Mars rover missions must incorporate increased autonomy if their desired mission goals are to be realized. Increased autonomy, including autonomous path planning and navigation to user designated goals, relies on good quality estimates of the rover's state, e.g., its position and orientation relative to some initial reference frame. The challenging terrain over which the rover will necessarily traverse tends to seriously degrade a deadreckoned state estimate, given severe wheel slip and#or interaction with obstacles. In this paper, we present the implementation of a complete rover navigation system. First, the system is able to adaptively construct semisparse terrain maps based on the current ground texture and distances to possible nearby obstacles. Second, the rover is able to match succ...
Pose estimation in conformal geometric algebra. Part II: Realtime pose estimation using extended feature concepts
 Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision
, 2005
"... Abstract. 2D3D pose estimation means to estimate the relative position and orientation of a 3D object with respect to a reference camera system. This work has its main focus on the theoretical foundations of the 2D3D pose estimation problem: We discuss the involved mathematical spaces and their in ..."
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Cited by 19 (15 self)
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Abstract. 2D3D pose estimation means to estimate the relative position and orientation of a 3D object with respect to a reference camera system. This work has its main focus on the theoretical foundations of the 2D3D pose estimation problem: We discuss the involved mathematical spaces and their interaction within higher order entities. To cope with the pose problem (how to compare 2D projective image features with 3D Euclidean object features), the principle we propose is to reconstruct image features (e.g. points or lines) to one dimensional higher entities