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Specialised Semantics of Logic Programs
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1994
"... In this paper, we present a specialised semantics for logic programs. It is a generalization of the ssemantics [16] and it is intended to describe program behaviour whenever some constraints on procedure calls are assumed. Both operational and fixpoint constructions are defined. They characterize s ..."
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Cited by 69 (19 self)
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In this paper, we present a specialised semantics for logic programs. It is a generalization of the ssemantics [16] and it is intended to describe program behaviour whenever some constraints on procedure calls are assumed. Both operational and fixpoint constructions are defined. They characterize successful derivations of programs where only atoms satisfying a given callcondition are selected. The concept of specialisable call correct (s.c.c., in short) program with respect to a given callcondition is introduced. We show that specialisable call correct programs can be transformed into callcorrect ones. A sufficient condition to verify specialisable call correctness is stated.
Infinite state model checking by abstract interpretation and program specialisation
 LogicBased Program Synthesis and Transformation. Proceedings of LOPSTR’99, LNCS 1817
, 2000
"... Abstract. We illustrate the use of logic programming techniques for finite model checking of CTL formulae. We present a technique for infinite state model checking of safety properties based upon logic program specialisation and analysis techniques. The power of the approach is illustrated on severa ..."
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Cited by 55 (24 self)
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Abstract. We illustrate the use of logic programming techniques for finite model checking of CTL formulae. We present a technique for infinite state model checking of safety properties based upon logic program specialisation and analysis techniques. The power of the approach is illustrated on several examples. For that, the efficient tools logen and ecce are used. We discuss how this approach has to be extended to handle more complicated infinite state systems and to handle arbitrary CTL formulae. 1
Type Dependencies for Logic Programs using ACIunification
 In Proceedings of the 1996 Israeli Symposium on Theory of Computing and Systems
, 1996
"... This paper presents a new notion of typing for logic programs which generalizes the notion of directional types. The generation of type dependencies for a logic program is fully automatic with respect to a given domain of types. The analysis method is based on a novel combination of program abstract ..."
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Cited by 44 (8 self)
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This paper presents a new notion of typing for logic programs which generalizes the notion of directional types. The generation of type dependencies for a logic program is fully automatic with respect to a given domain of types. The analysis method is based on a novel combination of program abstraction and ACIunification which is shown to be correct and optimal. Type dependencies are obtained by abstracting programs, replacing concrete terms by their types, and evaluating the meaning of the abstract programs using a standard semantics for logic programs enhanced by ACIunification. This approach is generic and can be used with any standard semantics. The method is both theoretically clean and easy to implement using general purpose tools. The proposed domain of types is condensing which means that analyses can be carried out in both topdown or bottomup frameworks with no loss of precision for goalindependent analyses. The proposed method has been fully implemented within a bottomup approach and the experimental results are promising.
Inferring Argument Size Relationships with CLP(R)
, 1996
"... . Argument size relationships are useful in termination analysis which, in turn, is important in program synthesis and goalreplacement transformations. We show how a precise analysis for interargument size relationships, formulated in terms of abstract interpretation, can be implemented straightfo ..."
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Cited by 44 (7 self)
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. Argument size relationships are useful in termination analysis which, in turn, is important in program synthesis and goalreplacement transformations. We show how a precise analysis for interargument size relationships, formulated in terms of abstract interpretation, can be implemented straightforwardly in a language with constraint support like CLP(R) or SICStus version 3. The analysis is based on polyhedral approximations and uses a simple relaxation technique to calculate least upper bounds and a delay method to improve the precision of widening. To the best of our knowledge, and despite its simplicity, the analysis derives relationships to an accuracy that is either comparable or better than any existing technique. 1 Introduction Termination analysis is important in program synthesis, goalreplacement transformations and is also likely to be useful in offline partial deduction. Termination analysis is usually necessary in synthesis since synthesis often only guarantees semanti...
Generalized Semantics and Abstract Interpretation for Constraint Logic Programs
, 1995
"... We present a simple and powerful generalized algebraic semantics for constraint logic programs that is parameterized with respect to the underlying constraint system. The idea is to abstract away from standard semantic objects by focusing on the general properties of any possibly nonstandard ..."
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Cited by 38 (5 self)
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We present a simple and powerful generalized algebraic semantics for constraint logic programs that is parameterized with respect to the underlying constraint system. The idea is to abstract away from standard semantic objects by focusing on the general properties of any possibly nonstandard  semantic definition. In constraint logic programming, this corresponds to a suitable definition of the constraint system supporting the semantic definition. An algebraic structure is introduced to formalize the notion of a constraint system, thus making classical mathematical results applicable. Both topdown and bottomup semantics are considered. Nonstandard semantics for constraint logic programs can then be formally specified using the same techniques used to define standard semantics. Different nonstandard semantics for constraint logic languages can be specified in this ...
Goal Independency and Call Patterns in the Analysis of Logic Programs
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE NINTH ACM SYMPOSIUM ON APPLIED COMPUTING
, 1994
"... We propose an abstract semantics for the goal independent analysis of properties of "procedure calls" in SLD derivations (call patterns). This can be used to derive information useful for logic program optimizations. ..."
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Cited by 29 (3 self)
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We propose an abstract semantics for the goal independent analysis of properties of "procedure calls" in SLD derivations (call patterns). This can be used to derive information useful for logic program optimizations.
An Algebraic Theory of Observables
, 1994
"... We give an algebraic formalization of SLDtrees and their abstractions (observables) . We can state and prove in the framework several useful theorems (ANDcompositionality, correctness and full abstraction of the denotation, equivalent topdown and bottomup constructions) about semantic properties ..."
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Cited by 28 (9 self)
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We give an algebraic formalization of SLDtrees and their abstractions (observables) . We can state and prove in the framework several useful theorems (ANDcompositionality, correctness and full abstraction of the denotation, equivalent topdown and bottomup constructions) about semantic properties of various observables. Observables are represented by Galois coinsertions and can be used to model abstract interpretation. The constructions and the theorems are inherited by all the observables which can be formalized in the framework. The power of the framework is shown by reconstructing some known examples (answer constraints, call patterns, correct call patterns and ground dependencies call patterns). 1 Introduction SLDtrees are structures used to describe the operational semantics of logic programs. From an SLDtree we can derive several operational properties which are useful for reasoning about programs. Examples are SLD  derivations, resultants, call patterns, partial answers,...
Practical ModelBased Static Analysis for Definite Logic Programs
, 1995
"... The declarative semantics of definite logic programs is the basis of an elegant and practical framework for their static analysis. We define a core semantics parameterised by a preinterpretation of the language underlying the program. The concrete semantics is given by an extended Herbrand interpret ..."
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Cited by 28 (13 self)
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The declarative semantics of definite logic programs is the basis of an elegant and practical framework for their static analysis. We define a core semantics parameterised by a preinterpretation of the language underlying the program. The concrete semantics is given by an extended Herbrand interpretation, capturing the correct answers of a program. The semantics is computed as the least fixed point of an immediate consequences operator. An abstract semantics is specified simply by giving, for each constant and function in the program, a denotation in an abstract domain of interpretation. No abstract operations such as abstract unification need to be defined. The directness and simplicity of this approach is then illustrated by specifying and implementing a number of abstract interpretations. These include various mode analyses, analyses on the structure of lists and the length of lists, and simple and polymorphic types. The implementations used for the experiments are based on abstract...
Generalized Metrics and Uniquely Determined Logic Programs
 Theoretical Computer Science
"... The introduction of negation into logic programming brings the benefit of enhanced syntax and expressibility, but creates some semantical problems. Specifically, certain operators which are monotonic in the absence of negation become nonmonotonic when it is introduced, with the result that standard ..."
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Cited by 28 (17 self)
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The introduction of negation into logic programming brings the benefit of enhanced syntax and expressibility, but creates some semantical problems. Specifically, certain operators which are monotonic in the absence of negation become nonmonotonic when it is introduced, with the result that standard approaches to denotational semantics then become inapplicable. In this paper, we show how generalized metric spaces can be used to obtain fixedpoint semantics for several classes of programs relative to the supported model semantics, and investigate relationships between the underlying spaces we employ. Our methods allow the analysis of classes of programs which include the acyclic, locally hierarchical, and acceptable programs, amongst others, and draw on fixedpoint theorems which apply to generalized ultrametric spaces and to partial metric spaces.
Observable Semantics for Constraint Logic Programs
 Journal of Logic and Computation
, 1995
"... We consider the Constraint Logic Programming paradigm CLP(X ), as defined by Jaffar and Lassez [29, 28]. CLP(X ) integrates a generic computational mechanism based on constraints within the logic programming framework. The paradigm retains the semantic properties of pure logic programs, namely the e ..."
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Cited by 28 (2 self)
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We consider the Constraint Logic Programming paradigm CLP(X ), as defined by Jaffar and Lassez [29, 28]. CLP(X ) integrates a generic computational mechanism based on constraints within the logic programming framework. The paradigm retains the semantic properties of pure logic programs, namely the existence of equivalent operational, modeltheoretic and fixpoint semantics. We introduce a framework for defining various semantics, each corresponding to a specific observable property of CLP computations. Each semantics can be defined either operationally (i.e. topdown) or declaratively (i.e. bottomup). The construction is based on a new notion of interpretation, on a natural extension of the standard notion of model and on the definition of various immediate consequences operators, whose least fixpoints on the lattice of interpretations are models corresponding to various observable properties. We first consider some semantics defined in [29] and their relations, in terms of correctne...