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Salvaging MerkleDamg˚ard for Practical Applications
, 2009
"... Many cryptographic applications of hash functions are analyzed in the random oracle model. Unfortunately, most concrete hash functions, including the SHA family, use the iterative (strengthened) MerkleDamg˚ard transform applied to a corresponding compression function. Moreover, it is well known tha ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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Many cryptographic applications of hash functions are analyzed in the random oracle model. Unfortunately, most concrete hash functions, including the SHA family, use the iterative (strengthened) MerkleDamg˚ard transform applied to a corresponding compression function. Moreover, it is well known that the resulting “structured ” hash function cannot be generically used as a random oracle, even if the compression function is assumed to be ideal. This leaves a large disconnect between theory and practice: although no attack is known for many concrete applications utilizing existing (MerkleDamg˚ard based) hash functions, there is no security guarantee either, even by idealizing the compression function. Motivated by this question, we initiate a rigorous and modular study of developing new notions of (still idealized) hash functions which would be (a) natural and elegant; (b) sufficient for arguing security of important applications; and (c) provably met by the (strengthened) MerkleDamg˚ard transform, applied to a “strong enough ” compression function. In particular, we show that a fixedlength compressing random oracle, as well as the currently used DaviesMeyer compression function (the latter analyzed in the ideal cipher model) are “strong enough ” for the two specific weakenings of the random oracle that we develop. These weaker notions, described below, are quite natural and should be interesting in their own right: • Preimage Aware Functions. Roughly, if an attacker found a “later useful ” output y of the function, then it must
Constructing cryptographic hash functions from fixedkey blockciphers. Full version of this paper
, 2008
"... Abstract. We propose a family of compression functions built from fixedkey blockciphers and investigate their collision and preimage security in the idealcipher model. The constructions have security approaching and in many cases equaling the security upper bounds found in previous work of the aut ..."
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Cited by 18 (5 self)
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Abstract. We propose a family of compression functions built from fixedkey blockciphers and investigate their collision and preimage security in the idealcipher model. The constructions have security approaching and in many cases equaling the security upper bounds found in previous work of the authors [24]. In particular, we describe a 2nbit to nbit compression function using three nbit permutation calls that has collision security N 0.5,whereN =2 n, and we describe 3nbit to 2nbit compression functions using five and six permutation calls and having collision security of at least N 0.55 and N 0.63. Key words: blockcipherbased hashing, collisionresistant hashing, compression functions, cryptographic hash functions, idealcipher model. 1
Adaptive Preimage Resistance and Permutationbased Hash Functions. Available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2009/066
"... Abstract. In this paper, we introduce a new notion of security, called adaptive preimage resistance. We prove that a compression function that is collision resistant and adaptive preimage resistant can be combined with a public random function to yield a hash function that is indifferentiable from a ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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Abstract. In this paper, we introduce a new notion of security, called adaptive preimage resistance. We prove that a compression function that is collision resistant and adaptive preimage resistant can be combined with a public random function to yield a hash function that is indifferentiable from a random oracle. Specifically, we analyze adaptive preimage resistance of 2nbit to nbit compression functions that use three calls to nbit public random permutations. This analysis also provides a simpler proof of their collision resistance and preimage resistance than the one provided by Rogaway and Steinberger [19]. By using such compression functions as building blocks, we obtain permutationbased pseudorandom oracles that outperform the Sponge construction [4] and the MD6 compression function [9] both in terms of security and efficiency.
Tweakable Blockciphers with Beyond BirthdayBound Security
"... Abstract. Liskov, Rivest and Wagner formalized the tweakable blockcipher (TBC) primitive at CRYPTO’02. The typical recipe for instantiating a TBC is to start with a blockcipher, and then build up a construction that admits a tweak. Almost all such constructions enjoy provable security only to the bi ..."
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Abstract. Liskov, Rivest and Wagner formalized the tweakable blockcipher (TBC) primitive at CRYPTO’02. The typical recipe for instantiating a TBC is to start with a blockcipher, and then build up a construction that admits a tweak. Almost all such constructions enjoy provable security only to the birthday bound, and the one that does achieve security beyond the birthday bound (due to Minematsu) severely restricts the tweak size and requires perinvocation blockcipher rekeying. This paper gives the first TBC construction that simultaneously allows for arbitrarily “wide ” tweaks, does not rekey, and delivers provable security beyond the birthday bound. Our construction is built from a blockcipher and an ɛAXU2 hash function. As an application of the TBC primitive, LRW suggest the TBCMAC construction (similar to CBCMAC but chaining through the tweak), but leave open the question of its security. We close this question, both for TBCMAC as a PRF and a MAC. Along the way, we find a noncebased variant of TBCMAC that has a tight reduction to the security of the underlying TBC, and also displays graceful security degradation when nonces are misused. This result is interesting on its own, but it also serves as an application of our new TBC construction, ultimately giving a variable inputlength PRF with beyond birthdaybound security.