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133
Sampling—50 years after Shannon
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 2000
"... This paper presents an account of the current state of sampling, 50 years after Shannon’s formulation of the sampling theorem. The emphasis is on regular sampling, where the grid is uniform. This topic has benefited from a strong research revival during the past few years, thanks in part to the math ..."
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Cited by 211 (22 self)
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This paper presents an account of the current state of sampling, 50 years after Shannon’s formulation of the sampling theorem. The emphasis is on regular sampling, where the grid is uniform. This topic has benefited from a strong research revival during the past few years, thanks in part to the mathematical connections that were made with wavelet theory. To introduce the reader to the modern, Hilbertspace formulation, we reinterpret Shannon’s sampling procedure as an orthogonal projection onto the subspace of bandlimited functions. We then extend the standard sampling paradigm for a representation of functions in the more general class of “shiftinvariant” functions spaces, including splines and wavelets. Practically, this allows for simpler—and possibly more realistic—interpolation models, which can be used in conjunction with a much wider class of (antialiasing) prefilters that are not necessarily ideal lowpass. We summarize and discuss the results available for the determination of the approximation error and of the sampling rate when the input of the system is essentially arbitrary; e.g., nonbandlimited. We also review variations of sampling that can be understood from the same unifying perspective. These include wavelets, multiwavelets, Papoulis generalized sampling, finite elements, and frames. Irregular sampling and radial basis functions are briefly mentioned. Keywords—Bandlimited functions, Hilbert spaces, interpolation, least squares approximation, projection operators, sampling,
Iterative hard thresholding for compressed sensing
 Appl. Comp. Harm. Anal
"... Compressed sensing is a technique to sample compressible signals below the Nyquist rate, whilst still allowing near optimal reconstruction of the signal. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the iterative hard thresholding algorithm when applied to the compressed sensing recovery probl ..."
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Cited by 138 (13 self)
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Compressed sensing is a technique to sample compressible signals below the Nyquist rate, whilst still allowing near optimal reconstruction of the signal. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the iterative hard thresholding algorithm when applied to the compressed sensing recovery problem. We show that the algorithm has the following properties (made more precise in the main text of the paper) • It gives nearoptimal error guarantees. • It is robust to observation noise. • It succeeds with a minimum number of observations. • It can be used with any sampling operator for which the operator and its adjoint can be computed. • The memory requirement is linear in the problem size. Preprint submitted to Elsevier 28 January 2009 • Its computational complexity per iteration is of the same order as the application of the measurement operator or its adjoint. • It requires a fixed number of iterations depending only on the logarithm of a form of signal to noise ratio of the signal. • Its performance guarantees are uniform in that they only depend on properties of the sampling operator and signal sparsity.
Robust Recovery of Signals From a Structured Union of Subspaces
, 2008
"... Traditional sampling theories consider the problem of reconstructing an unknown signal x from a series of samples. A prevalent assumption which often guarantees recovery from the given measurements is that x lies in a known subspace. Recently, there has been growing interest in nonlinear but structu ..."
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Cited by 107 (36 self)
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Traditional sampling theories consider the problem of reconstructing an unknown signal x from a series of samples. A prevalent assumption which often guarantees recovery from the given measurements is that x lies in a known subspace. Recently, there has been growing interest in nonlinear but structured signal models, in which x lies in a union of subspaces. In this paper we develop a general framework for robust and efficient recovery of such signals from a given set of samples. More specifically, we treat the case in which x lies in a sum of k subspaces, chosen from a larger set of m possibilities. The samples are modelled as inner products with an arbitrary set of sampling functions. To derive an efficient and robust recovery algorithm, we show that our problem can be formulated as that of recovering a blocksparse vector whose nonzero elements appear in fixed blocks. We then propose a mixed ℓ2/ℓ1 program for block sparse recovery. Our main result is an equivalence condition under which the proposed convex algorithm is guaranteed to recover the original signal. This result relies on the notion of block restricted isometry property (RIP), which is a generalization of the standard RIP used extensively in the context of compressed sensing. Based on RIP we also prove stability of our approach in the presence of noise and modeling errors. A special case of our framework is that of recovering multiple measurement vectors (MMV) that share a joint sparsity pattern. Adapting our results to this context leads to new MMV recovery methods as well as equivalence conditions under which the entire set can be determined efficiently.
Characterization of ultrawide bandwidth wireless indoor channels: a communicationtheoretic view
 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
, 2002
"... Abstract—An ultrawide bandwidth (UWB) signal propagation experiment is performed in a typical modern laboratory/office building. The bandwidth of the signal used in this experiment is in excess of 1 GHz, which results in a differential path delay resolution of less than a nanosecond, without specia ..."
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Cited by 74 (6 self)
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Abstract—An ultrawide bandwidth (UWB) signal propagation experiment is performed in a typical modern laboratory/office building. The bandwidth of the signal used in this experiment is in excess of 1 GHz, which results in a differential path delay resolution of less than a nanosecond, without special processing. Based on the experimental results, a characterization of the propagation channel from a communications theoretic view point is described, and its implications for the design of a UWB radio receiver are presented. Robustness of the UWB signal to multipath fading is quantified through histograms and cumulative distributions. The all Rake (ARake) receiver and maximumenergycapture selective Rake (SRake) receiver are introduced. The ARake receiver serves as the best case (bench mark) for Rake receiver design and lower bounds the performance degradation caused by multipath. Multipath components of measured waveforms are detected using a maximumlikelihood detector. Energy capture as a function of the number of singlepath signal correlators used in UWB SRake receiver provides a complexity versus performance tradeoff. Biterrorprobability performance of a UWB SRake receiver, based on measured channels, is given as a function of signaltonoise ratio and the number of correlators implemented in the receiver. Index Terms—All Rake receiver (ARake), biterror probability (BEP), energy capture, propagation channel, selective Rake (SRake) receiver, spreadspectrum, ultrawide bandwidth (UWB). I.
A chronology of interpolation: From ancient astronomy to modern signal and image processing
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 2002
"... This paper presents a chronological overview of the developments in interpolation theory, from the earliest times to the present date. It brings out the connections between the results obtained in different ages, thereby putting the techniques currently used in signal and image processing into histo ..."
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Cited by 62 (0 self)
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This paper presents a chronological overview of the developments in interpolation theory, from the earliest times to the present date. It brings out the connections between the results obtained in different ages, thereby putting the techniques currently used in signal and image processing into historical perspective. A summary of the insights and recommendations that follow from relatively recent theoretical as well as experimental studies concludes the presentation. Keywords—Approximation, convolutionbased interpolation, history, image processing, polynomial interpolation, signal processing, splines. “It is an extremely useful thing to have knowledge of the true origins of memorable discoveries, especially those that have been found not by accident but by dint of meditation. It is not so much that thereby history may attribute to each man his own discoveries and others should be encouraged to earn like commendation, as that the art of making discoveries should be extended by considering noteworthy examples of it. ” 1 I.
George Price’s Contributions to Evolutionary Genetics
 J. THEOR. BIOL.
, 1995
"... ... Equation, a profound insight into the nature of selection and the basis for the modern theories of kin and group selection; (ii) the theory of games and animal behavior, based on the concept of the evolutionarily stable strategy; and (iii) the modern interpretation of Fisher’s fundamental theore ..."
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Cited by 55 (8 self)
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... Equation, a profound insight into the nature of selection and the basis for the modern theories of kin and group selection; (ii) the theory of games and animal behavior, based on the concept of the evolutionarily stable strategy; and (iii) the modern interpretation of Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection, Fisher’s theorem being perhaps the most cited and least understood idea in the history of evolutionary genetics. This paper summarizes Price’s contributions and briefly outlines why, toward the end of his painful intellectual journey, he chose to focus his deep humanistic feelings and sharp,
Secure device pairing based on a visual channel
 In 2006 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy
, 2006
"... Recently several researchers and practitioners have begun to address the problem of how to set up secure communication between two devices without the assistance of a trusted third party. McCune, et al. [4] proposed that one device displays the hash of its public key in the form of a barcode, and th ..."
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Cited by 53 (5 self)
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Recently several researchers and practitioners have begun to address the problem of how to set up secure communication between two devices without the assistance of a trusted third party. McCune, et al. [4] proposed that one device displays the hash of its public key in the form of a barcode, and the other device reads it using a camera. Mutual authentication requires switching the roles of the devices and repeating the above process in the reverse direction. In this paper, we show how strong mutual authentication can be achieved even with a unidirectional visual channel, without having to switch device roles. By adopting recently proposed improved pairing protocols, we propose how visual channel authentication can be used even on devices that have very limited displaying capabilities.
Sampling theorems for signals from the union of finitedimensional linear subspaces
 IEEE Trans. on Inform. Theory
, 2009
"... Compressed sensing is an emerging signal acquisition technique that enables signals to be sampled well below the Nyquist rate, given that the signal has a sparse representation in an orthonormal basis. In fact, sparsity in an orthonormal basis is only one possible signal model that allows for sampli ..."
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Cited by 53 (8 self)
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Compressed sensing is an emerging signal acquisition technique that enables signals to be sampled well below the Nyquist rate, given that the signal has a sparse representation in an orthonormal basis. In fact, sparsity in an orthonormal basis is only one possible signal model that allows for sampling strategies below the Nyquist rate. In this paper we consider a more general signal model and assume signals that live on or close to the union of linear subspaces of low dimension. We present sampling theorems for this model that are in the same spirit as the NyquistShannon sampling theorem in that they connect the number of required samples to certain model parameters. Contrary to the NyquistShannon sampling theorem, which gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the number of required samples as well as a simple linear algorithm for signal reconstruction, the model studied here is more complex. We therefore concentrate on two aspects of the signal model, the existence of one to one maps to lower dimensional observation spaces and the smoothness of the inverse map. We show that almost all linear maps are one to one when the observation space is at least of the same dimension as the largest dimension of the convex hull of the union of any two subspaces in the model. However, we also show that in order for the inverse map to have certain smoothness properties such as a given finite Lipschitz constant, the required observation dimension necessarily depends logarithmically
Compressed Sensing of Analog Signals in ShiftInvariant Spaces
, 2009
"... A traditional assumption underlying most data converters is that the signal should be sampled at a rate exceeding twice the highest frequency. This statement is based on a worstcase scenario in which the signal occupies the entire available bandwidth. In practice, many signals are sparse so that on ..."
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Cited by 47 (30 self)
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A traditional assumption underlying most data converters is that the signal should be sampled at a rate exceeding twice the highest frequency. This statement is based on a worstcase scenario in which the signal occupies the entire available bandwidth. In practice, many signals are sparse so that only part of the bandwidth is used. In this paper, we develop methods for lowrate sampling of continuoustime sparse signals in shiftinvariant (SI) spaces, generated by m kernels with period T. We model sparsity by treating the case in which only k out of the m generators are active, however, we do not know which k are chosen. We show how to sample such signals at a rate much lower than m/T, which is the minimal sampling rate without exploiting sparsity. Our approach combines ideas from analog sampling in a subspace with a recently developed block diagram that converts an infinite set of sparse equations to a finite counterpart. Using these two components we formulate our problem within the framework of finite compressed sensing (CS) and then rely on algorithms developed in that context. The distinguishing feature of our results is that in contrast to standard CS, which treats finitelength vectors, we consider sampling of analog signals for which no underlying finitedimensional model exists. The proposed framework allows to extend much of the recent literature on CS to the analog domain.
Robust recovery of signals from a union of subspaces
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 2008
"... Traditional sampling theories consider the problem of reconstructing an unknown signal x from a series of samples. A prevalent assumption which often guarantees a unique signal consistent with the given measurements is that x lies in a known subspace. Recently, there has been growing interest in non ..."
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Cited by 39 (13 self)
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Traditional sampling theories consider the problem of reconstructing an unknown signal x from a series of samples. A prevalent assumption which often guarantees a unique signal consistent with the given measurements is that x lies in a known subspace. Recently, there has been growing interest in nonlinear but structured signal models, in which x is assumed to lie in a union of subspaces. An example is the case in which x is a finite length vector that is sparse in a given basis. In this paper we develop a general framework for robust and efficient recovery of such signals from a given set of samples. More specifically, we treat the case in which x lies in a finite union of finite dimensional spaces and the samples are modelled as inner products with an arbitrary set of sampling functions. We first develop conditions under which unique and stable recovery of x is possible, albeit with algorithms that have combinatorial complexity. To derive an efficient and robust recovery algorithm, we then show that our problem can be formulated as that of recovering a block sparse vector, namely a vector whose nonzero elements appear in fixed blocks. To solve this problem, we suggest minimizing a mixed ℓ2/ℓ1 norm subject to the measurement equations. We then develop equivalence conditions under which the proposed convex algorithm is guaranteed to recover the original signal. These results rely on the notion of block restricted isometry property (RIP), which is a generalization of the standard RIP used extensively in the context of compressed sensing. A special case of the proposed framework is that of recovering multiple measurement vectors (MMV) that share a joint sparsity pattern. Specializing our results to this context leads to new MMV recovery methods as well as equivalence conditions under which the entire set can be determined efficiently.