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139
The Use of Explicit Plans to Guide Inductive Proofs
 9th Conference on Automated Deduction
, 1988
"... We propose the use of explicit proof plans to guide the search for a proof in automatic theorem proving. By representing proof plans as the specifications of LCFlike tactics, [Gordon et al 79], and by recording these specifications in a sorted metalogic, we are able to reason about the conjectures ..."
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Cited by 272 (38 self)
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We propose the use of explicit proof plans to guide the search for a proof in automatic theorem proving. By representing proof plans as the specifications of LCFlike tactics, [Gordon et al 79], and by recording these specifications in a sorted metalogic, we are able to reason about the conjectures to be proved and the methods available to prove them. In this way we can build proof plans of wide generality, formally account for and predict their successes and failures, apply them flexibly, recover from their failures, and learn them from example proofs. We illustrate this technique by building a proof plan based on a simple subset of the implicit proof plan embedded in the BoyerMoore theorem prover, [Boyer & Moore 79]. Keywords Proof plans, inductive proofs, theorem proving, automatic programming, formal methods, planning. Acknowledgements I am grateful for many long conversations with other members of the mathematical reasoning group, from which many of the ideas in this paper e...
KIDS: A SemiAutomatic Program Development System
 Client Resources on the Internet, IEEE Multimedia Systems ’99
, 1990
"... The Kestrel Interactive Development System (KIDS) provides automated sup port for the development of correct and efficient programs from formal specifications. ..."
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Cited by 243 (24 self)
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The Kestrel Interactive Development System (KIDS) provides automated sup port for the development of correct and efficient programs from formal specifications.
Experiments with Proof Plans for Induction
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1992
"... The technique of proof plans, is explained. This technique is used to guide automatic inference in order to avoid a combinatorial explosion. Empirical research is described to test this technique in the domain of theorem proving by mathematical induction. Heuristics, adapted from the work of Boye ..."
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Cited by 96 (34 self)
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The technique of proof plans, is explained. This technique is used to guide automatic inference in order to avoid a combinatorial explosion. Empirical research is described to test this technique in the domain of theorem proving by mathematical induction. Heuristics, adapted from the work of Boyer and Moore, have been implemented as Prolog programs, called tactics, and used to guide an inductive proof checker, Oyster. These tactics have been partially specified in a metalogic, and the plan formation program, clam, has been used to reason with these specifications and form plans. These plans are then executed by running their associated tactics and, hence, performing an Oyster proof. Results are presented of the use of this technique on a number of standard theorems from the literature. Searching in the planning space is shown to be considerably cheaper than searching directly in Oyster's search space. The success rate on the standard theorems is high. Keywords Theorem prov...
A TypeTheoretic Interpretation of Standard ML
 IN PROOF, LANGUAGE AND INTERACTION: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF ROBIN MILNER
, 2000
"... ..."
A Science of Reasoning
, 1991
"... This paper addresses the question of how we can understand reasoning in general and mathematical proofs in particular. It argues the need for a highlevel understanding of proofs to complement the lowlevel understanding provided by Logic. It proposes a role for computation in providing this high ..."
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Cited by 78 (21 self)
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This paper addresses the question of how we can understand reasoning in general and mathematical proofs in particular. It argues the need for a highlevel understanding of proofs to complement the lowlevel understanding provided by Logic. It proposes a role for computation in providing this highlevel understanding, namely by the association of proof plans with proofs. Proof plans are defined and examples are given for two families of proofs. Criteria are given for assessing the association of a proof plan with a proof. 1 Motivation: the understanding of mathematical proofs The understanding of reasoning has interested researchers since, at least, Aristotle. Logic has been proposed by Aristotle, Boole, Frege and others as a way of formalising arguments and understanding their structure. There have also been psychological studies of how people and animals actually do reason. The work on Logic has been especially influential in the automation of reasoning. For instance, resolution...
Automating Recursive Type Definitions in Higher Order Logic
 Current Trends in Hardware Verification and Automated Theorem Proving
, 1988
"... : The expressive power of higher order logic makes it possible to define a wide variety of types within the logic and to prove theorems that state the properties of these types concisely and abstractly. This paper contains a tutorial introduction to the logical basis for such type definitions. Examp ..."
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Cited by 77 (6 self)
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: The expressive power of higher order logic makes it possible to define a wide variety of types within the logic and to prove theorems that state the properties of these types concisely and abstractly. This paper contains a tutorial introduction to the logical basis for such type definitions. Examples are given of the formal definitions in logic of several simple types. A method is then described for systematically defining any instance of a certain class of commonlyused recursive types. The automation of this method in HOL, an interactive system for generating proofs in higher order logic, is also discussed. 1 To appear in Current Trends in Hardware Verification and Automated Theorem Proving, proceedings of the 1988 Banff Workshop on Hardware Verification, edited by G. Birtwistle and P. Subrahmanyam (SpringerVerlag, 1988). Revised 28 January Contents Introduction 5 1 Introduction to Higher Order Logic 6 1.1 Notation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ...
KIDS  A KnowledgeBased Software Development System
 Automating Software Design
, 1990
"... The Kestrel Interactive Development System (KIDS) provides knowledgebased support for the derivation of correct and efficient programs from formal specifications. We trace the use of KIDS in deriving an algorithm for solving a problem arising from the design of sonar and radar signals. This derivat ..."
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Cited by 74 (5 self)
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The Kestrel Interactive Development System (KIDS) provides knowledgebased support for the derivation of correct and efficient programs from formal specifications. We trace the use of KIDS in deriving an algorithm for solving a problem arising from the design of sonar and radar signals. This derivation illustrates algorithm design, a generalized form of deductive inference, program simplification, finite differencing optimization, partial evaluation, case analysis, and data type refinement. All of the KIDS operations are automatic except the algorithm design tactics which presently require some interaction. Dozens of programs have been derived using the KIDS environment and we believe that it could be developed to the point where it can be used for routine programming.
Fundamentals Of Deductive Program Synthesis
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1992
"... An informal tutorial is presented for program synthesis, with an emphasis on deductive methods. According to this approach, to construct a program meeting a given specification, we prove the existence of an object meeting the specified conditions. The proof is restricted to be sufficiently construct ..."
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Cited by 70 (1 self)
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An informal tutorial is presented for program synthesis, with an emphasis on deductive methods. According to this approach, to construct a program meeting a given specification, we prove the existence of an object meeting the specified conditions. The proof is restricted to be sufficiently constructive, in the sense that, in establishing the existence of the desired output, the proof is forced to indicate a computational method for finding it. That method becomes the basis for a program that can be extracted from the proof. The exposition is based on the deductivetableau system, a theoremproving framework particularly suitable for program synthesis. The system includes a nonclausal resolution rule, facilities for reasoning about equality, and a wellfounded induction rule. INTRODUCTION This is an introduction to program synthesis, the derivation of a program to meet a given specification. It focuses on the deductive approach, in which the derivation task is regarded as a problem of ...
The Use of Planning Critics in Mechanizing Inductive Proofs
 International Conference on Logic Programming and Automated Reasoning  LPAR 92, St. Petersburg, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence No. 624
, 1992
"... Proof plans provide a technique for guiding the search for a proof in the context of tactical style reasoning. We propose an extension to this technique in which failure may be exploited in the search for a proof. This extension is based upon the concept of planning critics. In particular we ill ..."
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Cited by 56 (11 self)
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Proof plans provide a technique for guiding the search for a proof in the context of tactical style reasoning. We propose an extension to this technique in which failure may be exploited in the search for a proof. This extension is based upon the concept of planning critics. In particular we illustrate how proof critics may be used to patch proof plans in the domain of inductive proofs. 1 Introduction Proof plans [Bundy 88] guide the search for a proof in the context of tactical style reasoning [Gordon et al 79]. A proof plan contains a tactic together with a proof rationale. The tactic component specifies the lowlevel structure of a proof in terms of the objectlevel logic inference rules and is used to control the theorem prover. In contrast, the proof rationale, which is expressed in a metalogic, captures the highlevel structure of a proof. Proof plans are constructed from tactic specifications called methods. Using the metalogic, a method expresses the preconditions unde...
User Interaction with the Matita Proof Assistant
 Journal of Automated Reasoning, Special
, 2006
"... Abstract. Matita is a new, documentcentric, tacticbased interactive theorem prover. This paper focuses on some of the distinctive features of the user interaction with Matita, mostly characterized by the organization of the library as a searchable knowledge base, the emphasis on a highquality not ..."
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Cited by 51 (15 self)
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Abstract. Matita is a new, documentcentric, tacticbased interactive theorem prover. This paper focuses on some of the distinctive features of the user interaction with Matita, mostly characterized by the organization of the library as a searchable knowledge base, the emphasis on a highquality notational rendering, and the complex interplay between syntax, presentation, and semantics.