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Optimizing Object Queries Using an Effective Calculus
 ACM TODS
"... Objectoriented databases (OODBs) provide powerful data abstractions and modeling facilities, but they generally lack a suitable framework for query processing and optimization. The development of an effective query optimizer is one of the key factors for OODB systems to successfully compete with r ..."
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Cited by 52 (2 self)
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Objectoriented databases (OODBs) provide powerful data abstractions and modeling facilities, but they generally lack a suitable framework for query processing and optimization. The development of an effective query optimizer is one of the key factors for OODB systems to successfully compete with relational systems, as well as to meet the performance requirements of many nontraditional applications. We propose an effective framework with a solid theoretical basis for optimizing OODB query languages. Our calculus, called the monoid comprehension calculus, captures most features of ODMG OQL, and is a good basis for expressing various optimization algorithms concisely. This article concentrates on query unnesting (also known as query decorrelation), an optimization that, even though it improves performance considerably, is not treated properly (if at all) by most OODB systems. Our framework generalizes many unnesting techniques proposed recently in the literature, and is capable of removing any form of query nesting using a very simple and efficient algorithm. The simplicity of our method is due to the use of the monoid comprehension calculus as an intermediate form for OODB queries. The monoid comprehension calculus treats operations over multiple collection types, aggregates, and quantifiers in a similar way, resulting in a
On the Complexity of Nonrecursive XQuery and Functional Query Languages on Complex Values
 In Proc. PODS’05
"... This article studies the complexity of evaluating functional query languages for complex values such as monad algebra and the recursionfree fragment of XQuery. We show that monad algebra with equality restricted to atomic values is complete for the class TA[2O(n) , O(n)] of problems solvable in lin ..."
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Cited by 48 (2 self)
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This article studies the complexity of evaluating functional query languages for complex values such as monad algebra and the recursionfree fragment of XQuery. We show that monad algebra with equality restricted to atomic values is complete for the class TA[2O(n) , O(n)] of problems solvable in linear exponential time with a linear number of alternations. The monotone fragment of monad algebra with atomic value equality but without negation is complete for nondeterministic exponential time. For monad algebra with deep equality, we establish TA[2O(n) , O(n)] lower and exponentialspace upper bounds. We also study a fragment of XQuery, Core XQuery, that seems to incorporate all the features of a query language on complex values that are traditionally deemed essential. A close connection between monad algebra on lists and Core XQuery (with “child ” as the only axis) is exhibited, and it is shown that these languages are expressively equivalent up to representation issues. We show that Core XQuery is just as hard as monad algebra w.r.t. query and combined complexity, and that it is in TC0 if the query is assumed fixed. As Core XQuery is NEXPTIMEhard, it is commonly believed that any algorithm for evaluating Core XQuery has to require exponential amounts of working memory and doubly exponential time in the worst case. We present a property of queries – the lack of a certain form of composition – that virtually all realworld XQueries have and that allows for query evaluation in singly exponential time and polynomial space. Still, we are able to show for an important special case – Core XQuery with equality testing restricted to atomic values – that the compositionfree language is just as expressive as the language with composition. Thus, under widelyheld complexitytheoretic assumptions, the compositionfree language is an exponentially less succinct version of the language with composition.
Provenance as dependency analysis
 Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Database Programming Languages (DBPL 2007), number 4797 in LNCS
, 2007
"... Abstract. Provenance is information recording the source, derivation, or history of some information. Provenance tracking has been studied in a variety of settings; however, although many design points have been explored, the mathematical or semantic foundations of data provenance have received comp ..."
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Cited by 42 (16 self)
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Abstract. Provenance is information recording the source, derivation, or history of some information. Provenance tracking has been studied in a variety of settings; however, although many design points have been explored, the mathematical or semantic foundations of data provenance have received comparatively little attention. In this paper, we argue that dependency analysis techniques familiar from program analysis and program slicing provide a formal foundation for forms of provenance that are intended to show how (part of) the output of a query depends on (parts of) its input. We introduce a semantic characterization of such dependency provenance, show that this form of provenance is not computable, and provide dynamic and static approximation techniques. 1
Semantic Representations And Query Languages For OrSets
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF 12TH ACM SYMPOSIUM ON PRINCIPLES OF DATABASE SYSTEMS
, 1993
"... Orsets were introduced by Imielinski, Naqvi and Vadaparty for dealing with limited forms of disjunctive information in database queries. Independently, Rounds used a similar notion for representing disjunctive and conjunctive information in the context of situation theory. In this paper we formulat ..."
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Cited by 41 (21 self)
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Orsets were introduced by Imielinski, Naqvi and Vadaparty for dealing with limited forms of disjunctive information in database queries. Independently, Rounds used a similar notion for representing disjunctive and conjunctive information in the context of situation theory. In this paper we formulate a query language with adequate expressive power for orsets. Using the notion of normalization of orsets, queries at the "structural" and "conceptual" levels are distinguished. Losslessness of normalization is established for a large class of queries. We have obtained upper bounds for the cost of normalization. An approach related to that of Rounds is used to provide semantics for orsets. We also treat orsets in the context of partial information in databases.
MGS: a RuleBased Programming Language for Complex Objects and Collections
, 2001
"... We present the first results in the development of a new declarative programming language called MGS. This language is devoted to the simulation of biological processes, especially those whose state space must be computed jointly with the current state of the system. MGS proposes a unified view on s ..."
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Cited by 39 (13 self)
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We present the first results in the development of a new declarative programming language called MGS. This language is devoted to the simulation of biological processes, especially those whose state space must be computed jointly with the current state of the system. MGS proposes a unified view on several computational mechanisms initially inspired by biological or chemical processes (Gamma and the CHAM, Lindenmayer systems, Paun systems and cellular automata). The basic computation step in MGS replaces in a collection A of elements, some subcollection B, by another collection C. The collection C only depends on B and its adjacent elements in A. The pasting of C into A B depends on the shape of the involved collections. This step is called a transformation. The specification of the collection to be substituted can be done in many ways. We propose here a pattern language based on the neighborhood relationship induced by the topology of the collection. Several features to control the transformation applications are then presented.
Annotated XML: Queries and Provenance
, 2008
"... We present a formal framework for capturing the provenance of data appearing in XQuery views of XML. Building on previous work on relations and their (positive) query languages, we decorate unordered XML with annotations from commutative semirings and show that these annotations suffice for a large ..."
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Cited by 37 (16 self)
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We present a formal framework for capturing the provenance of data appearing in XQuery views of XML. Building on previous work on relations and their (positive) query languages, we decorate unordered XML with annotations from commutative semirings and show that these annotations suffice for a large positive fragment of XQuery applied to this data. In addition to tracking provenance metadata, the framework can be used to represent and process XML with repetitions, incomplete XML, and probabilistic XML, and provides a basis for enforcing access control policies in security applications. Each of these applications builds on our semantics for XQuery, which we present in several steps: we generalize the semantics of the Nested Relational Calculus (NRC) to handle semiringannotated complex values, we extend it with a recursive type and structural recursion operator for trees, and we define a semantics for XQuery on annotated XML by translation into this calculus.
Union Types for Semistructured Data
 University of Pennsylvania Dept. of CIS
, 1999
"... Semistructured databases are treated as dynamically typed: they come equipped with no independent schema or type system to constrain the data. Query languages that are designed for semistructured data, even when used with structured data, typically ignore any type information that may be present. ..."
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Cited by 37 (3 self)
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Semistructured databases are treated as dynamically typed: they come equipped with no independent schema or type system to constrain the data. Query languages that are designed for semistructured data, even when used with structured data, typically ignore any type information that may be present. The consequences of this are what one would expect from using a dynamic type system with complex data: fewer guarantees on the correctness of applications. For example, a query that would cause a type error in a statically typed query language will return the empty set when applied to a semistructured representation of the same data. Much semistructured data originates in structured data. A semistructured representation is useful when one wants to add data that does not conform to the original type or when one wants to combine sources of different types. However, the deviations from the prescribed types are often minor, and we believe that a better strategy than throwing away all typ...
Local Properties of Query Languages
"... predeterminedportionoftheinput.Examplesincludeallrelationalcalculusqueries. everyrelationalcalculus(rstorder)queryislocal,thegeneralresultsprovedforlocalqueriescan manyeasyinexpressibilityproofsforlocalqueries.Wethenconsideracloselyrelatedproperty, namely,theboundeddegreeproperty.Itdescribestheoutp ..."
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Cited by 35 (24 self)
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predeterminedportionoftheinput.Examplesincludeallrelationalcalculusqueries. everyrelationalcalculus(rstorder)queryislocal,thegeneralresultsprovedforlocalqueriescan manyeasyinexpressibilityproofsforlocalqueries.Wethenconsideracloselyrelatedproperty, namely,theboundeddegreeproperty.Itdescribestheoutputsoflocalqueriesonstructuresthat locallylook\simple."Everyquerythatislocalisshowntohavetheboundeddegreeproperty.Since Westartbyprovingageneralresultdescribingoutputsoflocalqueries.Thisresultleadsto toapplythanEhrenfeuchtFrassegames.Wealsoshowthatsomegeneralizationsofthebounded degreepropertythatwereconjecturedtohold,failforrelationalcalculus. beviewedas\otheshelf"strategiesforprovinginexpressibilityresults,whichareofteneasier maintenanceofviews,andshowthatSQLandrelationalcalculusareincapableofmaintainingthe gregates,whichisessentiallyplainSQL,hastheboundeddegreeproperty,thusansweringaques tionthathasbeenopenforseveralyears.Consequently,rstorderquerieswithHartigorRescher quantiersalsohavetheboundeddegreeproperty.Finally,weapplyourresultstoincremental Wethenprovethatthelanguageobtainedfromrelationalcalculusbyaddinggroupingandag
The Category Theoretic Understanding of Universal Algebra: Lawvere Theories and Monads
, 2007
"... Lawvere theories and monads have been the two main category theoretic formulations of universal algebra, Lawvere theories arising in 1963 and the connection with monads being established a few years later. Monads, although mathematically the less direct and less malleable formulation, rapidly gained ..."
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Cited by 35 (1 self)
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Lawvere theories and monads have been the two main category theoretic formulations of universal algebra, Lawvere theories arising in 1963 and the connection with monads being established a few years later. Monads, although mathematically the less direct and less malleable formulation, rapidly gained precedence. A generation later, the definition of monad began to appear extensively in theoretical computer science in order to model computational effects, without reference to universal algebra. But since then, the relevance of universal algebra to computational effects has been recognised, leading to renewed prominence of the notion of Lawvere theory, now in a computational setting. This development has formed a major part of Gordon Plotkin’s mature work, and we study its history here, in particular asking why Lawvere theories were eclipsed by monads in the 1960’s, and how the renewed interest in them in a computer science setting might develop in future.