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Continuation and Path Following
, 1992
"... CONTENTS 1 Introduction 1 2 The Basics of PredictorCorrector Path Following 3 3 Aspects of Implementations 7 4 Applications 15 5 PiecewiseLinear Methods 34 6 Complexity 41 7 Available Software 44 References 48 1. Introduction Continuation, embedding or homotopy methods have long served as useful ..."
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Cited by 84 (6 self)
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CONTENTS 1 Introduction 1 2 The Basics of PredictorCorrector Path Following 3 3 Aspects of Implementations 7 4 Applications 15 5 PiecewiseLinear Methods 34 6 Complexity 41 7 Available Software 44 References 48 1. Introduction Continuation, embedding or homotopy methods have long served as useful theoretical tools in modern mathematics. Their use can be traced back at least to such venerated works as those of Poincar'e (18811886), Klein (1882 1883) and Bernstein (1910). Leray and Schauder (1934) refined the tool and presented it as a global result in topology, viz., the homotopy invariance of degree. The use of deformations to solve nonlinear systems of equations Partially supported by the National Science Foundation via grant # DMS9104058 y Preprint, Colorado State University, August 2 E. Allgower and K. Georg may be traced back at least to Lahaye (1934). The classical embedding methods were the
Numerical Decomposition of the Solution Sets of Polynomial Systems into Irreducible Components
, 2001
"... In engineering and applied mathematics, polynomial systems arise whose solution sets contain components of different dimensions and multiplicities. In this article we present algorithms, based on homotopy continuation, that compute much of the geometric information contained in the primary decomposi ..."
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Cited by 69 (35 self)
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In engineering and applied mathematics, polynomial systems arise whose solution sets contain components of different dimensions and multiplicities. In this article we present algorithms, based on homotopy continuation, that compute much of the geometric information contained in the primary decomposition of the solution set. In particular, ignoring multiplicities, our algorithms lay out the decomposition of the set of solutions into irreducible components, by finding, at each dimension, generic points on each component. As byproducts, the computation also determines the degree of each component and an upper bound on itsmultiplicity. The bound issharp (i.e., equal to one) for reduced components. The algorithms make essential use of generic projection and interpolation, and can, if desired, describe each irreducible component precisely as the common zeroesof a finite number of polynomials.
ADAPTIVE MULTIPRECISION PATH TRACKING
"... This article treats numerical methods for tracking an implicitly defined path. The numerical precision required to successfully track such a path is difficult to predict a priori, and indeed, it may change dramatically through the course of the path. In current practice, one must either choose a con ..."
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Cited by 27 (17 self)
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This article treats numerical methods for tracking an implicitly defined path. The numerical precision required to successfully track such a path is difficult to predict a priori, and indeed, it may change dramatically through the course of the path. In current practice, one must either choose a conservatively large numerical precision at the outset or rerun paths multiple times in successively higher precision until success is achieved. To avoid unnecessary computational cost, it would be preferable to adaptively adjust the precision as the tracking proceeds in response to the local conditioning of the path. We present an algorithm that can be set to either reactively adjust precision in response to step failure or proactively set the precision using error estimates. We then test the relative merits of reactive and proactive adaptation on several examples arising as homotopies for solving systems of polynomial equations.
Advances in Polynomial Continuation for Solving Problems in Kinematics
, 2004
"... For many mechanical systems, including nearly all robotic manipulators, the set of possible configurations that the links may assume can be described by a system of polynomial equations. Thus, solving such systems is central to many problems in analyzing the motion of a mechanism or in designing a m ..."
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Cited by 23 (9 self)
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For many mechanical systems, including nearly all robotic manipulators, the set of possible configurations that the links may assume can be described by a system of polynomial equations. Thus, solving such systems is central to many problems in analyzing the motion of a mechanism or in designing a mechanism to achieve a desired motion. This paper describes techniques, based on polynomial continuation, for numerically solving such systems. Whereas in the past, these techniques were focused on finding isolated roots, we now address the treatment of systems having higherdimensional solution sets. Special attention is given to cases of exceptional mechanisms, which have a higher degree of freedom of motion than predicted by their mobility. In fact, such mechanisms often have several disjoint assembly modes, and the degree of freedom of motion is not necessarily the same in each mode. Our algorithms identify all such assembly modes, determine their dimension and degree, and give sample points on each.
Numerical Evidence For A Conjecture In Real Algebraic Geometry
, 1998
"... Homotopies for polynomial systems provide computational evidence for a challenging instance of a conjecture about whether all solutions are real. The implementation of SAGBI homotopies involves polyhedral continuation, flat deformation and cheater's homotopy. The numerical difficulties are over ..."
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Cited by 20 (4 self)
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Homotopies for polynomial systems provide computational evidence for a challenging instance of a conjecture about whether all solutions are real. The implementation of SAGBI homotopies involves polyhedral continuation, flat deformation and cheater's homotopy. The numerical difficulties are overcome if we work in the true synthetic spirit of the Schubert calculus by selecting the numerically most favorable equations to represent the geometric problem. Since a wellconditioned polynomial system allows perturbations on the input data without destroying the reality of the solutions we obtain not just one instance, but a whole manifold of systems that satisfy the conjecture. Also an instance that involves totally positive matrices has been verified. The optimality of the solving procedure is a promising first step towards the development of numerically stable algorithms for the pole placement problem in linear systems theory.
A Linear Relaxation Technique for the Position Analysis of Multiloop Linkages
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS
"... This paper presents a new method to isolate all configurations that a multiloop linkage can adopt. The problem is tackled by means of formulation and resolution techniques that fit particularly well together. The adopted formulation yields a system of simple equations (only containing linear, biline ..."
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Cited by 18 (15 self)
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This paper presents a new method to isolate all configurations that a multiloop linkage can adopt. The problem is tackled by means of formulation and resolution techniques that fit particularly well together. The adopted formulation yields a system of simple equations (only containing linear, bilinear, and quadratic monomials, and trivial trigonometric terms for the helical pair only) whose structure is later exploited by a branchandprune method based on linear relaxations. The method is general, as it can be applied to linkages with single or multiple loops with arbitrary topology, involving lower pairs of any kind, and complete, as all possible solutions get accurately bounded, irrespectively of whether the linkage is rigid or mobile.
A BranchandPrune Solver for Distance Constraints
 SUBMITTED TO THE IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION
"... Given some geometric elements such as points and lines in R³, subject to a set of pairwise distance constraints, the problem tackled in this paper is that of finding all possible configurations of these elements that satisfy the constraints. Many problems in Robotics (such as the position analysis ..."
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Cited by 14 (9 self)
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Given some geometric elements such as points and lines in R³, subject to a set of pairwise distance constraints, the problem tackled in this paper is that of finding all possible configurations of these elements that satisfy the constraints. Many problems in Robotics (such as the position analysis of serial and parallel manipulators) and CAD/CAM (such as the interactive placement of objects) can be formulated in this way. The strategy herein proposed consists in looking for some of the a priori unknown distances, whose derivation permits solving the problem rather trivially. Finding these distances relies on a branchandprune technique that iteratively eliminates from the space of distances entire regions which cannot contain any solution. This elimination is accomplished by applying redundant necessary conditions derived from the theory of Distance Geometry. The experimental results qualify this approach as a promising one.
POLYNOMIAL HOMOTOPIES FOR DENSE, SPARSE AND DETERMINANTAL SYSTEMS
, 1999
"... Numerical homotopy continuation methods for three classes of polynomial systems are presented. For a generic instance of the class, every path leads to a solution and the homotopy is optimal. The counting of the roots mirrors the resolution of a generic system ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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Numerical homotopy continuation methods for three classes of polynomial systems are presented. For a generic instance of the class, every path leads to a solution and the homotopy is optimal. The counting of the roots mirrors the resolution of a generic system
Five Precision Points Synthesis Of Spatial Rrr Manipulators Using Interval Analysis
 ASME J. Mech. Des
, 2002
"... In this paper, the geometric design problem of seriallink robot manipulators with three revolute (R) joints is solved for the first time using an interval analysis method. In this problem, five spatial positions and orientations are defined and the dimensions of the geometric parameters of the ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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In this paper, the geometric design problem of seriallink robot manipulators with three revolute (R) joints is solved for the first time using an interval analysis method. In this problem, five spatial positions and orientations are defined and the dimensions of the geometric parameters of the 3R manipulator are computed so that the manipulator will be able to place its endeffector at these prespecified locations. Denavit and Hartenberg parameters and 4x4 homogeneous matrices are used to formulate the problem and obtain the design equations and an interval method is used to search for design solutions within a predetermined domain. At the time of writing this paper, six design solutions within the search domain and an additional twenty solutions outside the domain have been found. KEYWORDS Geometric Design, Robot Manipulators, Interval Analysis