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Simulation Methods for RF Integrated Circuits
 In Proceedings of ICCAD'97
, 1997
"... Abstract — The principles employed in the development of modern RF simulators are introduced and the various techniques currently in use, or expected to be in use in the next few years, are surveyed. Frequencyand timedomain techniques are presented and contrasted, as are steadystate and envelope t ..."
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Cited by 24 (1 self)
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Abstract — The principles employed in the development of modern RF simulators are introduced and the various techniques currently in use, or expected to be in use in the next few years, are surveyed. Frequencyand timedomain techniques are presented and contrasted, as are steadystate and envelope techniques and large and smallsignal techniques. I. RF CIRCUITS The increasing demand for lowcost mobile communication systems has greatly expanded the need for simulation algorithms that are both efficient and accurate when applied to RF communication circuits. RF circuits have several unique characteristics that are barriers to the application of traditional circuit simulation techniques. Over the last decade, researchers have developed many special purpose algorithms that overcome these barriers to provide practical simulation for RF circuits, often by exploiting the very characteristic that represented the barrier to traditional methods. Despite dramatic progress, the average design cycle of an RFIC is still twice the length of that for other ICs found in a communication system, such as a cellular phone. This represents a significant practical barrier to integration of the RF and baseband sections of a transceiver onto a single chip. Clearly, more progress is necessary. This paper is a overview of RF simulation methods that seeks to provide an understanding of how the various methods address the RF simulation problem, and how they relate to each other. It begins by describing the unique characteristics of RF circuits. The basic solution methods of transient analysis, harmonic balance, and shooting methods are presented and contrasted. Smallsignal analysis versions of both harmonic balance and shooting methods are covered. Composite methods are next. These methods apply the base
*PHDD: An Efficient Graph Representation for Floating Point Circuit Verification
 In Int'l Conf. on CAD
, 1997
"... Data structures such as *BMDs, HDDs, and K*BMDs provide compact representations for functions which map Boolean vectors into integer values, but not floating point values. In this paper, we propose a new data structure, called Multiplicative Power Hybrid Decision Diagrams (*PHDDs), to provide a comp ..."
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Cited by 18 (2 self)
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Data structures such as *BMDs, HDDs, and K*BMDs provide compact representations for functions which map Boolean vectors into integer values, but not floating point values. In this paper, we propose a new data structure, called Multiplicative Power Hybrid Decision Diagrams (*PHDDs), to provide a compact representation for functions that map Boolean vectors into integer or floating point values. The size of the graph to represent the IEEE floating point encoding is linear with the word size. The complexity of floating point multiplication grows linearly with the word size. The complexity of floating point addition grows exponentially with the size of the exponent part, but linearly with the size of the mantissa part. We applied *PHDDs to verify integer multipliers and floating point multipliers before the rounding stage, based on a hierarchical verification approach. For integer multipliers, our results are at least 6 times faster than *BMDs. Previous attempts at verifying floating point multipliers required manual intervention. We verified floating point multipliers before the rounding stage automatically.
The Frequency Domain Behavioral Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Analog Circuits and Systems
, 1993
"... LUNSFORD II, PHILIP J. The Frequency Domain Behavioral Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Analog Circuits and Systems. (Under the direction of Michael B. Steer.) A new technique for the frequencydomain behavioral modeling and simulation of nonautonomous nonlinear analog subsystems is presented. ..."
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LUNSFORD II, PHILIP J. The Frequency Domain Behavioral Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Analog Circuits and Systems. (Under the direction of Michael B. Steer.) A new technique for the frequencydomain behavioral modeling and simulation of nonautonomous nonlinear analog subsystems is presented. This technique extracts values of the Volterra nonlinear transfer functions and stores these values in binary files. Using these files, the modeled substem can be simulated for an arbitrary periodic input expressed as a finite sum of sines and cosines. Furthermore, the extraction can be based on any circuit simulator that is capable of steady state simulation. Thus a large system can be divided into smaller subsystems, each of which is characterized by circuit level simulations or lab measurements. The total system can then be simulated using the subsystem characterization stored as tables in binary files.
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"... 1Abstract — The principles employed in the development of modern RF simulators are introduced and the various techniques currently in use, or expected to be in use in the next few years, are surveyed. Frequencyand timedomain techniques are presented and contrasted, as are steadystate and envelo ..."
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1Abstract — The principles employed in the development of modern RF simulators are introduced and the various techniques currently in use, or expected to be in use in the next few years, are surveyed. Frequencyand timedomain techniques are presented and contrasted, as are steadystate and envelope techniques and large and smallsignal techniques. I. RF CIRCUITS The increasing demand for lowcost mobile communication systems has greatly expanded the need for simulation algorithms that are both efficient and accurate when applied to RF communication circuits. RF circuits have several unique characteristics that are barriers to the application of traditional circuit simulation techniques. Over the last decade, researchers have devel
Design Methodology for Multichannel Communication Systems
, 2004
"... A methodology for understanding and modeling the interaction of multiple CDMA signals in a nonlinear multichannel environment is introduced and verified. The analysis is based on understanding the statistical properties of input signals and developing a modeling technique that enables distortion to ..."
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A methodology for understanding and modeling the interaction of multiple CDMA signals in a nonlinear multichannel environment is introduced and verified. The analysis is based on understanding the statistical properties of input signals and developing a modeling technique that enables distortion to be estimated. This is coupled with the introduction of a new behavioral modeling technique that captures the black box characteristics of multichannel amplifiers. In addition, a performance analysis that relates nonlinear distortion to probability of bit error (BER) is introduced. The analysis presented here provides an insight into communication system design by relating distortion to system performance. The methodology is verified using simulations and measurements performed on a nonlinear power amplifier. A nonlinear model was extracted and used in developing the statistical model by which distortion is estimated. The resulting estimates of distortion were verified using measurements of distortion performed on the amplifier using the IS95 CDMA system standard.
Transactions Briefs__________________________________________________________________ A DiscreteTime Approach to the SteadyState and Stability Analysis of Distributed Nonlinear Autonomous Circuits
"... Abstract—We present a direct method for the steadystate and stability analysis of autonomous circuits with transmission lines and generic nonlinear elements. With the discretization of the equations that describe the circuit in the time domain, we obtain a nonlinear algebraic formulation where the ..."
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Abstract—We present a direct method for the steadystate and stability analysis of autonomous circuits with transmission lines and generic nonlinear elements. With the discretization of the equations that describe the circuit in the time domain, we obtain a nonlinear algebraic formulation where the unknowns to determine are the samples of the variables directly in the steady state, along with the oscillation period, the main unknown in autonomous circuits. An efficient scheme to build the Jacobian matrix with exact partial derivatives with respect to the oscillation period and with respect to the samples of the unknowns is described. Without any modification in the analysis method, the stability of the solution can be computed a posteriori constructing an implicit map, where the last sample is viewed as a function of the previous samples. The application of this technique to the timedelayed Chua's circuit (TDCC) allows us to investigate the stability of the periodic solutions and to locate the perioddoubling bifurcations. Index Terms—Autonomous circuits, bifurcation points, distributed, nonlinear, steadystate response, stability analysis, timedomain discretization. I.
A Distortion Analysis Method for FET Amplifiers Using Novel FrequencyDependent Complex Power Series Model
, 1999
"... This paper pr#P oses a new distor#0PL analysis ..."
HIGHLIGHTS IN PHYSICAL SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS AT ICCAD
"... Six papers were chosen to represent twenty years of research in physical simulation and analysis, three papers addressing the problem of extracting and simulating interconnect effects and three papers describing techniques for simulating steadystate and noise behavior in RF circuits. In this commen ..."
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Six papers were chosen to represent twenty years of research in physical simulation and analysis, three papers addressing the problem of extracting and simulating interconnect effects and three papers describing techniques for simulating steadystate and noise behavior in RF circuits. In this commentary paper we will try to describe the contribution of each paper and place that contribution in some historical context.