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Causes and explanations: A structuralmodel approach
 In Proceedings IJCAI01
, 2001
"... We propose a new definition of actual causes, using structural equations to model counterfactuals. We show that the definition yields a plausible and elegant account of causation that handles well examples which have caused problems for other definitions ..."
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Cited by 121 (10 self)
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We propose a new definition of actual causes, using structural equations to model counterfactuals. We show that the definition yields a plausible and elegant account of causation that handles well examples which have caused problems for other definitions
Reasoning With Cause And Effect
, 1999
"... This paper summarizes basic concepts and principles that I have found to be useful in dealing with causal reasoning. The paper is written as a companion to a lecture under the same title, to be presented at IJCAI99, and is intended to supplement the lecture with technical details and pointers to mo ..."
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Cited by 37 (0 self)
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This paper summarizes basic concepts and principles that I have found to be useful in dealing with causal reasoning. The paper is written as a companion to a lecture under the same title, to be presented at IJCAI99, and is intended to supplement the lecture with technical details and pointers to more elaborate discussions in the literature. The ruling conception will be to treat causation as a computational schema devised to identify the invariant relationships in the environment, so as to facilitate reliable prediction of the effect of actions. This conception, as well as several of its satellite principles and tools, has been guiding paradigm for several research communities in AI, most notably those connected with causal discovery, troubleshooting, planning under uncertainty and modeling the behavior of physical systems. My hopes are to encourage a broader and more effective usage of causal modeling by explicating these common principles in simple and familiar mathematical form. Af...
Defining Explanation in Probabilistic Systems
 In Proc. UAI97
, 1997
"... As probabilistic systems gain popularity and are coming into wider use, the need for a mechanism that explains the system's findings and recommendations becomes more critical. The system will also need a mechanism for ordering competing explanations. We examine two representative approaches to expla ..."
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Cited by 23 (3 self)
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As probabilistic systems gain popularity and are coming into wider use, the need for a mechanism that explains the system's findings and recommendations becomes more critical. The system will also need a mechanism for ordering competing explanations. We examine two representative approaches to explanation in the literature one due to G ardenfors and one due to Pearland show that both suffer from significant problems. We propose an approach to defining a notion of "better explanation" that combines some of the features of both together with more recent work by Pearl and others on causality. 1 INTRODUCTION Probabilistic inference is often hard for humans to understand. Even a simple inference in a small domain may seem counterintuitive and surprising; the situation only gets worse for large and complex domains. Thus, a system doing probabilistic inference must be able to explain its findings and recommendations to evoke confidence on the part of the user. Indeed, in experiments wi...
Structurebased causes and explanations in the independent choice logic
 Proceedings UAI2003
, 2003
"... This paper is directed towards combining Pearl’s structuralmodel approach to causal reasoning with highlevel formalisms for reasoning about actions. More precisely, we present a combination of Pearl’s structuralmodel approach with Poole’s independent choice logic. We show how probabilistic theor ..."
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Cited by 13 (6 self)
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This paper is directed towards combining Pearl’s structuralmodel approach to causal reasoning with highlevel formalisms for reasoning about actions. More precisely, we present a combination of Pearl’s structuralmodel approach with Poole’s independent choice logic. We show how probabilistic theories in the independent choice logic can be mapped to probabilistic causal models. This mapping provides the independent choice logic with appealing concepts of causality and explanation from the structuralmodel approach. We illustrate this along Halpern and Pearl’s sophisticated notions of actual cause, explanation, and partial explanation. Furthermore, this mapping also adds firstorder modeling capabilities and explicit actions to the structuralmodel approach.
Causes and Explanations in the StructuralModel Approach: Tractable Cases
 IN PROC. EIGHTEENTH CONFERENCE ON UNCERTAINTY IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (UAI 2002
, 2002
"... In this paper, we continue our research on the algorithmic aspects of Halpern and Pearl's causes and explanations in the structuralmodel approach. To this end, we present new characterizations of weak causes for certain classes of causal models, which show that under suitable restrictions deciding ..."
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Cited by 10 (3 self)
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In this paper, we continue our research on the algorithmic aspects of Halpern and Pearl's causes and explanations in the structuralmodel approach. To this end, we present new characterizations of weak causes for certain classes of causal models, which show that under suitable restrictions deciding causes and explanations is tractable. To our knowledge, these are the first explicit tractability results for the structuralmodel approach.
FlexiMine  a flexible platform for KDD research and application construction
, 1998
"... * FlexiMine is a KDD system designed as a testbed for datamining research, as well as a generic knowledge discovery tool for varied database domains. Flexibility is achieved by an openended design for extensibility, enabling integration of existing datamining algorithms, new locally developed alg ..."
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Cited by 9 (2 self)
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* FlexiMine is a KDD system designed as a testbed for datamining research, as well as a generic knowledge discovery tool for varied database domains. Flexibility is achieved by an openended design for extensibility, enabling integration of existing datamining algorithms, new locally developed algorithms, and support functions, such as visualization and preprocessing. Support for new databases is simple currently via SQL queries to an INFORMIX database server. With a view of serving remote, as well as local, users, internet availability was a design goal. By implementing the system in Java, minor modifications allow us to run the userend of the system either as a Java applications or as a Java Applet.
Complexity Results for Explanations in the StructuralModel Approach
 Institut für Informationssysteme
, 2002
"... We analyze the computational complexity of Halpern and Pearl's (causal) explanations in the structuralmodel approach, which are based on their notions of weak and actual causality. In particular, we give a precise picture of the complexity of deciding explanations, partial explanations, and ..."
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Cited by 6 (5 self)
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We analyze the computational complexity of Halpern and Pearl's (causal) explanations in the structuralmodel approach, which are based on their notions of weak and actual causality. In particular, we give a precise picture of the complexity of deciding explanations, partial explanations, and partial explanations, and of computing the explanatory power of partial explanations.
Computing with Bayesian MultiNetworks
 Air Force Institute of Technology, WrightPatterson AFB, Ohio
, 1993
"... Existing probabilistic approaches to automated reasoning impose severe restrictions on its knowledge representation scheme. Mainly, this is to ensure that there exists an effective inferencing algorithm. Unfortunately, this makes the application of these approaches to general domains quite difficult ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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Existing probabilistic approaches to automated reasoning impose severe restrictions on its knowledge representation scheme. Mainly, this is to ensure that there exists an effective inferencing algorithm. Unfortunately, this makes the application of these approaches to general domains quite difficult. In this paper, we present a new model called Bayesian multinetworks which uses a rulebased organization of knowledge quite natural for human experts modeling various domains. Furthermore, strong probabilistic semantics help quantify the knowledge. Combined with the rich structure of rulebased approaches, a general inference engine for Bayesian multinetworks is developed. 1 Introduction The success of automated reasoning will clearly depend on its applicability to a wide variety of problem domains. It must have a flexible knowledge representation scheme as well as provide effective and efficient inference mechanisms. Unfortunately, knowledge representation and inference algorithms alway...
Explanation Trees for Causal Bayesian Networks
"... Bayesian networks can be used to extract explanations about the observed state of a subset of variables. In this paper, we explicate the desiderata of an explanation and confront them with the concept of explanation proposed by existing methods. The necessity of taking into account causal approaches ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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Bayesian networks can be used to extract explanations about the observed state of a subset of variables. In this paper, we explicate the desiderata of an explanation and confront them with the concept of explanation proposed by existing methods. The necessity of taking into account causal approaches when a causal graph is available is discussed. We then introduce causal explanation trees, based on the construction of explanation trees using the measure of causal information ow (Ay and Polani, 2006). This approach is compared to several other methods on known networks. 1
Explaining Predictions in Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams
 In Proc. of the AAAI 1998 Spring Symposium Series: Interactive and MixedInitiative DecisionTheoretic Systems
, 1998
"... As Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams are being used more and more widely, the importance of an efficient explanation mechanism becomes more apparent. We focus on predictive explanations, the ones designed to explain predictions and recommendations of probabilistic systems. We analyze the issu ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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As Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams are being used more and more widely, the importance of an efficient explanation mechanism becomes more apparent. We focus on predictive explanations, the ones designed to explain predictions and recommendations of probabilistic systems. We analyze the issues involved in defining, computing and evaluating such explanations and present an algorithm to compute them. Introduction As knowledgebased reasoning systems begin addressing realworld problems, they are often designed to be used not by experts but by people unfamiliar with the domain. Such people are unlikely to accept systems prediction or advice without some explanation. In addition, the systems ever increasing size makes their computations more and more difficult to follow even for their creators. This situation makes an explanation mechanism critical for making these systems useful and widely accepted. Probabilistic systems, such as Bayesian Networks (Pearl 1988) and Influence Di...