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76
A Combinatorial Approach to Planar Noncolliding Robot Arm Motion Planning
 In Proc. 41st FOCS
, 2000
"... We propose a combinatorial approach to plan noncolliding motions for a planar robot arm. The approach works even with certain types of movable polygonal obstacles and flexible polygonal fences. This yields a very efficient deterministic algorithm for a category of robot arm motion planning problems ..."
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Cited by 101 (14 self)
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We propose a combinatorial approach to plan noncolliding motions for a planar robot arm. The approach works even with certain types of movable polygonal obstacles and flexible polygonal fences. This yields a very efficient deterministic algorithm for a category of robot arm motion planning problems with many degrees of freedom, for which the known general roadmap techniques have exponential complexity. The main result is an efficient algorithm for convexifying a simple (open or closed) polygonal path with rigid nonintersecting motions in the plane. It works by computing in O(n&sup2;) time a monotone mechanism with one degree of freedom, whose motion is controlled by the rotation of a single edge around one of its endpoints. As it moves, all the interdistances between pairs of points not joined by a bar are nondecreasing, thus guaranteeing noncollision. At most O(n&sup2;) such motions suffice to reach a convex configuration of the original linkage. At each step, recomputing the next motion from ...
Expansive motions and the polytope of pointed pseudotriangulations
 Discrete and Computational Geometry  The GoodmanPollack Festschrift, Algorithms and Combinatorics
, 2003
"... We introduce the polytope of pointed pseudotriangulations of a point set in the plane, defined as the polytope of infinitesimal expansive motions of the points subject to certain constraints on the increase of their distances. Its 1skeleton is the graph whose vertices are the pointed pseudotriang ..."
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Cited by 45 (15 self)
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We introduce the polytope of pointed pseudotriangulations of a point set in the plane, defined as the polytope of infinitesimal expansive motions of the points subject to certain constraints on the increase of their distances. Its 1skeleton is the graph whose vertices are the pointed pseudotriangulations of the point set and whose edges are flips of interior pseudotriangulation edges. For points in convex position we obtain a new realization of the associahedron, i.e., a geometric representation of the set of triangulations of an ngon, or of the set of binary trees on n vertices, or of many other combinatorial objects that are counted by the Catalan numbers. By considering the 1dimensional version of the polytope of constrained expansive motions we obtain a second distinct realization of the associahedron as a perturbation of the positive cell in a Coxeter arrangement. Our methods produce as a byproduct a new proof that every simple polygon or polygonal arc in the plane has expansive motions, a key step in the proofs of
Collision detection for deforming necklaces
 IN SYMP. ON COMPUTATIONAL GEOMETRY
, 2002
"... In this paper, we propose to study deformable necklaces — flexible chains of balls, called beads, in which only adjacent balls may intersect. Such objects can be used to model macromolecules, muscles, rope, and other ‘linear ’ objects in the physical world. In this paper, we exploit this linearity ..."
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Cited by 36 (11 self)
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In this paper, we propose to study deformable necklaces — flexible chains of balls, called beads, in which only adjacent balls may intersect. Such objects can be used to model macromolecules, muscles, rope, and other ‘linear ’ objects in the physical world. In this paper, we exploit this linearity to develop geometric structures associated with necklaces that are useful in physical simulations. We show how these structures can be implemented efficiently and maintained under necklace deformation. In particular, we study a bounding volume hierarchy based on spheres built on a necklace. Such a hierarchy is easy to compute and is suitable for maintenance when the necklace deforms, as our theoretical and experimental results show. This hierarchy can be used for collision and selfcollision detection. In particular, we achieve an upper bound of O(nlog n) in two dimensions and O(n 2−2/d) in ddimensions, d ≥ 3, for collision checking. To our knowledge, this is the first subquadratic bound proved for a collision detection algorithm using predefined hierarchies. In addition, we show that the power diagram, with the help of some additional mechanisms, can be also used to detect selfcollisions of a necklace in certain ways complementary to the sphere hierarchy.
Deformable spanners and applications
 In Proc. of the 20th ACM Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG’04
, 2004
"... For a set S of points in R d,ansspanner is a graph on S such that any pair of points is connected via some path in the spanner whose total length is at most s times the Euclidean distance between the points. In this paper we propose a new sparse (1 + ε)spanner with O(n/ε d) edges, where ε is a spe ..."
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Cited by 35 (5 self)
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For a set S of points in R d,ansspanner is a graph on S such that any pair of points is connected via some path in the spanner whose total length is at most s times the Euclidean distance between the points. In this paper we propose a new sparse (1 + ε)spanner with O(n/ε d) edges, where ε is a specified parameter. The key property of this spanner is that it can be efficiently maintained under dynamic insertion or deletion of points, as well as under continuous motion of the points in both the kinetic data structures setting and in the more realistic blackbox displacement model we introduce. Our deformable spanner succinctly encodes all proximity information in a deforming point cloud, giving us efficient kinetic algorithms for problems such as the closest pair, the near neighbors of all points, approximate nearest neighbor search (aka approximate Voronoi diagram), wellseparated pair decomposition, and approximate kcenters. 1
Tight degree bounds for pseudotriangulations of points
, 2003
"... We show that every set of n points in general position has a minimum pseudotriangulation whose maximum vertex degree is five. In addition, we demonstrate that every point set in general position has a minimum pseudotriangulation whose maximum face degree is four (i.e., each interior face of this p ..."
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Cited by 32 (10 self)
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We show that every set of n points in general position has a minimum pseudotriangulation whose maximum vertex degree is five. In addition, we demonstrate that every point set in general position has a minimum pseudotriangulation whose maximum face degree is four (i.e., each interior face of this pseudotriangulation has at most four vertices). Both degree bounds are tight. Minimum pseudotriangulations realizing these bounds (individually but not jointly) can be constructed in O(n log n) time.
Planar Minimally Rigid Graphs and PseudoTriangulations
, 2003
"... Pointed pseudotriangulations are planar minimally rigid graphs embedded in the plane with pointed vertices (incident to an angle larger than π). In this paper we prove that the opposite statement is also true, namely that planar minimally rigid graphs always admit pointed embeddings, even under cer ..."
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Cited by 30 (15 self)
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Pointed pseudotriangulations are planar minimally rigid graphs embedded in the plane with pointed vertices (incident to an angle larger than π). In this paper we prove that the opposite statement is also true, namely that planar minimally rigid graphs always admit pointed embeddings, even under certain natural topological and combinatorial constraints. The proofs yield efficient embedding algorithms. They also provide—to the best of our knowledge—the first algorithmically effective result on graph embeddings with oriented matroid constraints other than convexity of faces.
Minimal Hierarchical Collision Detection
 IN PROC. VRST 2002
, 2002
"... We present a novel bounding volume hierarchy that allows for extremely small data structure sizes while still performing collision detection as fast as other classical hierarchical algorithms in most cases. The hierarchical data structure is a variation of axisaligned bounding box trees. In additio ..."
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Cited by 28 (6 self)
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We present a novel bounding volume hierarchy that allows for extremely small data structure sizes while still performing collision detection as fast as other classical hierarchical algorithms in most cases. The hierarchical data structure is a variation of axisaligned bounding box trees. In addition to being very memory efficient, it can be constructed efficiently and very fast. We also propose
Counting Triangulations and PseudoTriangulations of Wheels
 IN PROC. 13TH CANAD. CONF. COMPUT. GEOM
, 2001
"... Motivated by several open questions on triangulations and pseudotriangulations, we give closed form expressions for the number of triangulations and the number of minimum pseudotriangulations of n points in wheel configurations, that is, with n  1 in convex position. Although the numbers of trian ..."
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Cited by 21 (5 self)
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Motivated by several open questions on triangulations and pseudotriangulations, we give closed form expressions for the number of triangulations and the number of minimum pseudotriangulations of n points in wheel configurations, that is, with n  1 in convex position. Although the numbers of triangulations and pseudotriangulations vary depending on the placement of the interior point, their difference is always the (n2)nd Catalan number. We also prove an inequality #PT # 3 i #T for the numbers of minimum pseudotriangulations and triangulations of any point configuration with i interior points.
Efficient Maintenance and SelfCollision Testing for Kinematic Chains
, 2002
"... The kinematic chain is a ubiquitous and extensively studied representation in robotics as well as a useful model for studying the motion of biological macromolecules. Both fields stand to benefit from algorithms for efficient maintenance and collision detection in such chains. This paper introduces ..."
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Cited by 19 (3 self)
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The kinematic chain is a ubiquitous and extensively studied representation in robotics as well as a useful model for studying the motion of biological macromolecules. Both fields stand to benefit from algorithms for efficient maintenance and collision detection in such chains. This paper introduces a novel hierarchical representation of a kinematic chain allowing for efficient incremental updates and relative position calculation. A hierarchy of oriented bounding boxes is superimposed on top of this representation, enabling high performance collision detection, selfcollision testing, and distance computation. This representation has immediate applications in the field of molecular biology, for speeding up molecular simulations and studies of folding paths of proteins. It could be instrumental in path planning applications for robots with many degrees of freedom, also known as hyperredundant robots. A comparison of the performance of the algorithm with the current state of the art in collision detection is presented for a number of benchmarks.