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Efficient ray tracing of volume data
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1990
"... Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing sampled scalar or vector fields of three spatial dimensions without fitting geometric primitives to the data. A subset of these techniques generates images by computing 2D projections of a colored semitransparent volume, where the color and opacity at ..."
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Cited by 332 (4 self)
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Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing sampled scalar or vector fields of three spatial dimensions without fitting geometric primitives to the data. A subset of these techniques generates images by computing 2D projections of a colored semitransparent volume, where the color and opacity at each point are derived from the data using local operators. Since all voxels participate in the generation of each image, rendering time grows linearly with the size of the dataset. This paper presents a fronttoback imageorder volumerendering algorithm and discusses two techniques for improving its performance. The first technique employs a pyramid of binary volumes to encode spatial coherence present in the data, and the second technique uses an opacity threshold to adaptively terminate ray tracing. Although the actual time saved depends on the data, speedups of an order of magnitude have been observed for datasets of useful size and complexity. Examples from two applications are given: medical imaging and molecular graphics.
A progressive refinement approach to fast radiosity image generation
 Computer Graphics
, 1988
"... A reformulated radiosity algorithm is presented that produces initial images in time linear to the number of patches. The enormous memory costs of the radiosity algorithm are also eliminated by computing formfactors onthefly. The technique is based on the approach of rendering by progressive ref ..."
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Cited by 240 (5 self)
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A reformulated radiosity algorithm is presented that produces initial images in time linear to the number of patches. The enormous memory costs of the radiosity algorithm are also eliminated by computing formfactors onthefly. The technique is based on the approach of rendering by progressive refinement. The algorithm provides a useful solution almost immediately which progresses gracefully and continuously to the complete radiosity solution. In this way the competing demands of realism and interactivity are accommodated. The technique brings the use of radiosity for interactive rendering within reach and has implications for the use and development of current and future graphics workstations.
Interactive Rendering with Coherent Ray Tracing
 Computer Graphics Forum
, 2001
"... For almost two decades researchers have argued that ray tracing will eventually become faster than the rasterization technique that completely dominates todays graphics hardware. However, this has not happened yet. Ray tracing is still exclusively being used for offline rendering of photorealistic ..."
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Cited by 199 (47 self)
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For almost two decades researchers have argued that ray tracing will eventually become faster than the rasterization technique that completely dominates todays graphics hardware. However, this has not happened yet. Ray tracing is still exclusively being used for offline rendering of photorealistic images and it is commonly believed that ray tracing is simply too costly to ever challenge rasterizationbased algorithms for interactive use. However, there is hardly any scientific analysis that supports either point of view. In particular there is no evidence of where the crossover point might be, at which ray tracing would eventually become faster, or if such a point does exist at all.
An ImageBased Approach to ThreeDimensional Computer Graphics
, 1997
"... The conventional approach to threedimensional computer graphics produces images from geometric scene descriptions by simulating the interaction of light with matter. My research explores an alternative approach that replaces the geometric scene description with perspective images and replaces the s ..."
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Cited by 172 (4 self)
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The conventional approach to threedimensional computer graphics produces images from geometric scene descriptions by simulating the interaction of light with matter. My research explores an alternative approach that replaces the geometric scene description with perspective images and replaces the simulation process with data interpolation. I derive an imagewarping equation that maps the visible points in a reference image to their correct positions in any desired view. This mapping from reference image to desired image is determined by the centerofprojection and pinholecamera model of the two images and by a generalized disparity value associated with each point in the reference image. This generalized disparity value, which represents the structure of the scene, can be determined from point correspondences between multiple reference images. The imagewarping equation alone is insufficient to synthesize desired images because multiple referenceimage points may map to a single point. I derive a new visibility algorithm that determines a drawing order for the image warp. This algorithm results in correct visibility for the desired image independent of the reference image’s contents. The utility of the imagebased approach can be enhanced with a more general pinholecamera
A Fast Voxel Traversal Algorithm for Ray Tracing
 In Eurographics ’87
, 1987
"... A fast and simple voxel traversal algorithm through a 3D space partition is introduced. Going from one voxel to its neighbour requires only two floating point comparisons and one floating point addition. Also, multiple ray intersections with objects that are in more than one voxel are eliminated. ..."
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Cited by 154 (5 self)
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A fast and simple voxel traversal algorithm through a 3D space partition is introduced. Going from one voxel to its neighbour requires only two floating point comparisons and one floating point addition. Also, multiple ray intersections with objects that are in more than one voxel are eliminated. Introduction In recent years, ray tracing has become the algorithm of choice for generating high fidelity images. Its simplicity and elegance allows one to easily model reflection, refraction and shadows. 1 Unfortunately, it has a major drawback: computational expense. The prime reason for this is that the heart of ray tracing, intersecting an object with a ray, is expensive and can easily take up to 95% of the rendering time. Unless some sort of intersection culling is performed, each ray must intersect all the objects in the scene, a very expensive proposition. There are two general strategies for intersection culling: hierarchical bounding volumes 1, 2, 3, 4 and space partitioning...
Metropolis Light Transport
 Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '97 Proceedings
, 1997
"... We present a new Monte Carlo method for solving the light transport problem, inspired by the Metropolis sampling method in computational physics. To render an image, we generate a sequence of light transport paths by randomly mutating a single current path (e.g. adding a new vertex to the path). Eac ..."
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Cited by 152 (1 self)
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We present a new Monte Carlo method for solving the light transport problem, inspired by the Metropolis sampling method in computational physics. To render an image, we generate a sequence of light transport paths by randomly mutating a single current path (e.g. adding a new vertex to the path). Each mutation is accepted or rejected with a carefully chosen probability, to ensure that paths are sampled according to the contribution they make to the ideal image. We then estimate this image by sampling many paths, and recording their locations on the image plane. Our algorithm is unbiased, handles general geometric and scattering models, uses little storage, and can be orders of magnitude more e#cient than previous unbiased approaches. It performs especially well on problems that are usually considered di#cult, e.g. those involving bright indirect light, small geometric holes, or glossy surfaces. Furthermore, it is competitive with previous unbiased algorithms even for relatively simple ...
Photon Mapping on Programmable Graphics Hardware
 GRAPHICS HARDWARE
, 2003
"... We present a modified photon mapping algorithm capable of running entirely on GPUs. Our implementation uses breadthfirst photon tracing to distribute photons using the GPU. The photons are stored in a gridbased photon map that is constructed directly on the graphics hardware using one of two met ..."
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Cited by 128 (4 self)
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We present a modified photon mapping algorithm capable of running entirely on GPUs. Our implementation uses breadthfirst photon tracing to distribute photons using the GPU. The photons are stored in a gridbased photon map that is constructed directly on the graphics hardware using one of two methods: the first method is a multipass technique that uses fragment programs to directly sort the photons into a compact grid. The second method uses a single rendering pass combining a vertex program and the stencil buffer to route photons to their respective grid cells, producing an approximate photon map. We also present an efficient method for locating the nearest photons in the grid, which makes it possible to compute an estimate of the radiance at any surface location in the scene. Finally, we describe a breadthfirst stochastic ray tracer that uses the photon map to simulate full global illumination directly on the graphics hardware. Our implementation demonstrates that current graphics hardware is capable of fully simulating global illumination with progressive, interactive feedback to the user.
A survey of shadow algorithms
 IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
, 1990
"... Essential to realistic and visually appealing images, shadows are difficult ta compute in most display environments. This survey characterizes the various types of shadows. It also describes most existing shadow algorithms and discusses their complexities, advantages, and shommings. We examine herd ..."
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Cited by 127 (3 self)
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Essential to realistic and visually appealing images, shadows are difficult ta compute in most display environments. This survey characterizes the various types of shadows. It also describes most existing shadow algorithms and discusses their complexities, advantages, and shommings. We examine herd shadows, soft shadbws, shadows of transparent objects, and shadows for complex modeling primitives. For each type, we examine shadow algorithms within various rendswing techniques. This survey attempts to provide readem with enough background and insight on the various rmthods to dow them to choose the algorithm best wpuited to their W. We also hope that our analysis will h&p identify the a m that need more research and point bo possible sotutkms. A shadowa region of relative darkness within an not necessarily attenuate the light it occludes. In fact, illuminated regionoccurs when an object totally or it can concentrate light. However, as is traditional in partially occludes the light. A transparent object does image synthesis, lve will consider a region to be in
Interactive Global Illumination using Fast Ray Tracing
, 2002
"... Rasterization hardware provides interactive frame rates for rendering dynamic scenes, but lacks the ability of ray tracing required for efficient global illumination simulation. Existing ray tracing based methods yield high quality renderings but are far too slow for interactive use. We present a ..."
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Cited by 110 (19 self)
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Rasterization hardware provides interactive frame rates for rendering dynamic scenes, but lacks the ability of ray tracing required for efficient global illumination simulation. Existing ray tracing based methods yield high quality renderings but are far too slow for interactive use. We present a new parallel global illumination algorithm that perfectly scales, has minimal preprocessing and communication overhead, applies highly efficient sampling techniques based on randomized quasiMonte Carlo integration, and benefits from a fast parallel ray tracing implementation by shooting coherent groups of rays. Thus a performance is achieved that allows for applying arbitrary changes to the scene, while simulating global illumination including shadows from area light sources, indirect illumination, specular effects, and caustics at interactive frame rates. Ceasing interaction rapidly provides high quality renderings.