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**11 - 16**of**16**### The Design Principles and Algorithms of a General Weighted Grammar Library

"... We present the software design principles, algorithms, and utilities of a general weighted grammar library, the GRM Library, that can be used in a variety of applications in text, speech, and biosequence processing. Several of the algorithms and utilities of this library are described, including in ..."

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We present the software design principles, algorithms, and utilities of a general weighted grammar library, the GRM Library, that can be used in a variety of applications in text, speech, and biosequence processing. Several of the algorithms and utilities of this library are described, including in some cases their pseudocodes and pointers to their use in applications. The algorithms and the utilities were designed to support a wide variety of semirings and the representation and use of large grammars and automata of several hundred million rules or transitions.

### An Efficient Constraint Grammar Parser based on Inward Deterministic Automata

"... The paper reconceptualizes Constraint Grammar as a framework where the rules refine the compact representations of lo-cal ambiguity while the rule conditions are matched against a string of feature vec-tors that summarize the compact repre-sentations. Both views to the ambiguity are processed with p ..."

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The paper reconceptualizes Constraint Grammar as a framework where the rules refine the compact representations of lo-cal ambiguity while the rule conditions are matched against a string of feature vec-tors that summarize the compact repre-sentations. Both views to the ambiguity are processed with pure finite-state oper-ations. The compact representations are mapped to feature vectors with the aid of a rational power series. This magical inter-connection is not less pure than a prevalent interpretation that requires that the read-ing set provided by a lexical transducer is magically linearized to a marked con-catenation of readings given to pure trans-ducers. The current approach has several practical benefits, including the inward de-terministic way to compute, represent and maintain all the applications of the rules in the sentence.

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"... Text and speech processing: hard problems Theory of automata Appropriate level of abstraction ..."

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Text and speech processing: hard problems Theory of automata Appropriate level of abstraction

### Comments on Roche

"... hines which encode syntactic constraints. This method effectively allows one to sidestep the question of whether language as a whole is finite-state; instead, one performs syntactic analysis with a lot of little constraints, each one of which is finite-state. The parallel between such computational ..."

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hines which encode syntactic constraints. This method effectively allows one to sidestep the question of whether language as a whole is finite-state; instead, one performs syntactic analysis with a lot of little constraints, each one of which is finite-state. The parallel between such computational approaches to syntax, and theoretical approaches under the general "principles and parameters" rubric is striking: in both cases complex systems of rewrite rules have been abandoned in favor of a scheme whereunder there is a massive overgeneration of output structures, which are then filtered by a series of simple, often lexical, constraints. Roche's approach differs from Intersection Grammars and Local Grammars in one important respect: since he uses FSTs, rather than FSAs, he is able to build structure, as well as restrict it. The primary function of Intersection Grammars and Local Grammars is to weed out possible analyses, and while 1 This commentary has be