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Learning Markov logic network structure via hypergraph lifting
 In Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML09
, 2009
"... Markov logic networks (MLNs) combine logic and probability by attaching weights to firstorder clauses, and viewing these as templates for features of Markov networks. Learning MLN structure from a relational database involves learning the clauses and weights. The stateoftheart MLN structure lear ..."
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Cited by 30 (3 self)
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Markov logic networks (MLNs) combine logic and probability by attaching weights to firstorder clauses, and viewing these as templates for features of Markov networks. Learning MLN structure from a relational database involves learning the clauses and weights. The stateoftheart MLN structure learners all involve some element of greedily generating candidate clauses, and are susceptible to local optima. To address this problem, we present an approach that directly utilizes the data in constructing candidates. A relational database can be viewed as a hypergraph with constants as nodes and relations as hyperedges. We find paths of true ground atoms in the hypergraph that are connected via their arguments. To make this tractable (there are exponentially many paths in the hypergraph), we lift the hypergraph by jointly clustering the constants to form higherlevel concepts, and find paths in it. We variabilize the ground atoms in each path, and use them to form clauses, which are evaluated using a pseudolikelihood measure. In our experiments on three realworld datasets, we find that our algorithm outperforms the stateoftheart approaches. 1.
Learning Markov Logic Networks Using Structural Motifs
"... Markov logic networks (MLNs) use firstorder formulas to define features of Markov networks. Current MLN structure learners can only learn short clauses (45 literals) due to extreme computational costs, and thus are unable to represent complex regularities in data. To address this problem, we presen ..."
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Cited by 24 (1 self)
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Markov logic networks (MLNs) use firstorder formulas to define features of Markov networks. Current MLN structure learners can only learn short clauses (45 literals) due to extreme computational costs, and thus are unable to represent complex regularities in data. To address this problem, we present LSM, the first MLN structure learner capable of efficiently and accurately learning long clauses. LSM is based on the observation that relational data typically contains patterns that are variations of the same structural motifs. By constraining the search for clauses to occur within motifs, LSM can greatly speed up the search and thereby reduce the cost of finding long clauses. LSM uses random walks to identify densely connected objects in data, and groups them and their associated relations into a motif. Our experiments on three realworld datasets show that our approach is 25 orders of magnitude faster than the stateoftheart ones, while achieving the same or better predictive performance. 1.
Maxmargin weight learning for Markov logic networks
 In Proceedings of the European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (ECML/PKDD09). Bled
, 2009
"... Abstract. Markov logic networks (MLNs) are an expressive representation for statistical relational learning that generalizes both firstorder logic and graphical models. Existing discriminative weight learning methods for MLNs all try to learn weights that optimize the Conditional Log Likelihood (CL ..."
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Cited by 18 (5 self)
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Abstract. Markov logic networks (MLNs) are an expressive representation for statistical relational learning that generalizes both firstorder logic and graphical models. Existing discriminative weight learning methods for MLNs all try to learn weights that optimize the Conditional Log Likelihood (CLL) of the training examples. In this work, we present a new discriminative weight learning method for MLNs based on a maxmargin framework. This results in a new model, MaxMargin Markov Logic Networks (M3LNs), that combines the expressiveness of MLNs with the predictive accuracy of structural Support Vector Machines (SVMs). To train the proposed model, we design a new approximation algorithm for lossaugmented inference in MLNs based on Linear Programming (LP). The experimental result shows that the proposed approach generally achieves higher F1 scores than the current best discriminative weight learner for MLNs. 1
Learning Markov Logic Networks via Functional Gradient Boosting
"... Abstract—Recent years have seen a surge of interest in Statistical Relational Learning (SRL) models that combine logic with probabilities. One prominent example is Markov Logic Networks (MLNs). While MLNs are indeed highly expressive, this expressiveness comes at a cost. Learning MLNs is a hard prob ..."
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Cited by 12 (3 self)
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Abstract—Recent years have seen a surge of interest in Statistical Relational Learning (SRL) models that combine logic with probabilities. One prominent example is Markov Logic Networks (MLNs). While MLNs are indeed highly expressive, this expressiveness comes at a cost. Learning MLNs is a hard problem and therefore has attracted much interest in the SRL community. Current methods for learning MLNs follow a twostep approach: first, perform a search through the space of possible clauses and then learn appropriate weights for these clauses. We propose to take a different approach, namely to learn both the weights and the structure of the MLN simultaneously. Our approach is based on functional gradient boosting where the problem of learning MLNs is turned into a series of relational functional approximation problems. We use two kinds of representations for the gradients: clausebased and treebased. Our experimental evaluation on several benchmark data sets demonstrates that our new approach can learn MLNs as good or better than those found with stateoftheart methods, but often in a fraction of the time.
In Online Structure Learning for Markov Logic Networks
"... Abstract. Most existing learning methods for Markov Logic Networks (MLNs) use batch training, which becomes computationally expensive and eventually infeasible for large datasets with thousands of training examples which may not even all fit in main memory. To address this issue, previous work has u ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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Abstract. Most existing learning methods for Markov Logic Networks (MLNs) use batch training, which becomes computationally expensive and eventually infeasible for large datasets with thousands of training examples which may not even all fit in main memory. To address this issue, previous work has used online learning to train MLNs. However, they all assume that the model’s structure (set of logical clauses) is given, and only learn the model’s parameters. However, the input structure is usually incomplete, so it should also be updated. In this work, we present OSL—the first algorithm that performs both online structure and parameter learning for MLNs. Experimental results on two realworld datasets for naturallanguage field segmentation show that OSL outperforms systems that cannot revise structure. 1
F.: Learning the structure of probabilistic logic programs
 ILP 2011. LNCS
, 2012
"... Abstract. There is a growing interest in the field of Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming, which uses languages that integrate logic programming and probability. Many of these languages are based on the distribution semantics and recently various authors have proposed systems for learning the ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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Abstract. There is a growing interest in the field of Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming, which uses languages that integrate logic programming and probability. Many of these languages are based on the distribution semantics and recently various authors have proposed systems for learning the parameters (PRISM, LeProbLog, LFIProbLog and EMBLEM) or both the structure and the parameters (SEMCPlogic) of these languages. EMBLEM for example uses an Expectation Maximization approach in which the expectations are computed on Binary Decision Diagrams. In this paper we present the algorithm SLIPCASE for “Structure LearnIng of ProbabilistiC logic progrAmS with Em over bdds”. It performs a beam search in the space of the language of Logic Programs with Annotated Disjunctions (LPAD) using the log likelihood of the data as the guiding heuristics. To estimate the log likelihood of theory refinements it performs a limited number of Expectation Maximization iterations of EMBLEM. SLIPCASE has been tested on three realworld datasetsandcomparedwithSEMCPlogic andLearningusing Structural Motifs, an algorithm for Markov Logic Networks. The results show that SLIPCASE achieves higher areas under the precisionrecall and ROC curves and is more scalable.
Transforming Graph Data for Statistical Relational Learning
"... Relational data representations have become an increasingly important topic due to the recent proliferation of network datasets (e.g., social, biological, information networks) and a corresponding increase in the application of Statistical Relational Learning (SRL) algorithms to these domains. In th ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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Relational data representations have become an increasingly important topic due to the recent proliferation of network datasets (e.g., social, biological, information networks) and a corresponding increase in the application of Statistical Relational Learning (SRL) algorithms to these domains. In this article, we examine and categorize techniques for transforming graphbased relational data to improve SRL algorithms. In particular, appropriate transformations of the nodes, links, and/or features of the data can dramatically affect the capabilities and results of SRL algorithms. We introduce an intuitive taxonomy for data representation transformations in relational domains that incorporates link transformation and node transformation as symmetric representation tasks. More specifically, the transformation tasks for both nodes and links include (i) predicting their existence, (ii) predicting their label or type, (iii) estimating their weight or importance, and (iv) systematically constructing their relevant features. We motivate our taxonomy through detailed examples and use it to survey competing approaches for each of these tasks. We also discuss general conditions for transforming links, nodes, and features. Finally, we highlight challenges that remain to be addressed. 1.
Hypergraph Lifting for Structure Learning in Markov Logic Networks
"... In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in combining statistical and relational learning approaches (Getoor & Taskar, 2007), driven by the realization that many applications require both. Recently, ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in combining statistical and relational learning approaches (Getoor & Taskar, 2007), driven by the realization that many applications require both. Recently,
Learning with Markov Logic Networks: Transfer Learning, Structure Learning, and an Application to Web Query Disambiguation
, 2009
"... ..."
Discriminative Learning with Markov Logic Networks
"... Statistical relational learning (SRL) is an emerging area of research that addresses the problem of learning from noisy structured/relational data. Markov logic networks (MLNs), sets of weighted clauses, are a simple but powerful SRL formalism that combines the expressivity of firstorder logic with ..."
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Statistical relational learning (SRL) is an emerging area of research that addresses the problem of learning from noisy structured/relational data. Markov logic networks (MLNs), sets of weighted clauses, are a simple but powerful SRL formalism that combines the expressivity of firstorder logic with the flexibility of probabilistic reasoning. Most of the existing learning algorithms for MLNs are in the generative setting: they try to learn a model that maximizes the likelihood of the training data. However, most of the learning problems in relational data are discriminative. So to utilize the power of MLNs, we need discriminative learning methods that well match these discriminative tasks. In this proposal, we present two new discriminative learning algorithms for MLNs. The first one is a discriminative structure and weight learner for MLNs with nonrecursive clauses. We use a variant of ALEPH, an offtheshelf Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) system, to learn a large set of Horn clauses from the training data, then we apply an L1regularization weight learner to select a small set of nonzero weight clauses that maximizes the conditional loglikelihood (CLL) of the training data. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms existing learning methods for MLNs and traditional ILP systems in term of predictive accuracy, and its performance is comparable to stateoftheart