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QSplat: A Multiresolution Point Rendering System for Large Meshes
, 2000
"... Advances in 3D scanning technologies have enabled the practical creation of meshes with hundreds of millions of polygons. Traditional algorithms for display, simplification, and progressive transmission of meshes are impractical for data sets of this size. We describe a system for representing and p ..."
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Cited by 502 (8 self)
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Advances in 3D scanning technologies have enabled the practical creation of meshes with hundreds of millions of polygons. Traditional algorithms for display, simplification, and progressive transmission of meshes are impractical for data sets of this size. We describe a system for representing and progressively displaying these meshes that combines a multiresolution hierarchy based on bounding spheres with a rendering system based on points. A single data structure is used for view frustum culling, backface culling, levelofdetail selection, and rendering. The representation is compact and can be computed quickly, making it suitable for large data sets. Our implementation, written for use in a largescale 3D digitization project, launches quickly, maintains a usersettable interactive frame rate regardless of object complexity or camera position, yields reasonable image quality during motion, and refines progressively when idle to a high final image quality. We have demonstrated the system on scanned models containing hundreds of millions of samples.
ROAMing Terrain: Realtime Optimally Adapting Meshes
, 1997
"... Terrain visualization is a difficult problem for applications requiring accurate images of large datasets at high frame rates, such as flight simulation and groundbased aircraft testing using synthetic sensor stimulation. On current graphics hardware, the problem is to maintain dynamic, viewdepend ..."
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Cited by 287 (10 self)
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Terrain visualization is a difficult problem for applications requiring accurate images of large datasets at high frame rates, such as flight simulation and groundbased aircraft testing using synthetic sensor stimulation. On current graphics hardware, the problem is to maintain dynamic, viewdependent triangle meshes and texture maps that produce good images at the required frame rate. We present an algorithm for constructing triangle meshes that optimizes flexible viewdependent error metrics, produces guaranteed error bounds, achieves specified triangle counts directly, and uses frametoframe coherence to operate at high frame rates for thousands of triangles per frame. Our method, dubbed Realtime Optimally Adapting Meshes (ROAM), uses two priority queues to drive split and merge operations that maintain continuous triangulations built from preprocessed bintree triangles. We introduce two additional performance optimizations: incremental triangle stripping and prioritycomputation deferral lists. ROAM execution time is proportionate to the number of triangle changes per frame, which is typically a few percent of the output mesh size, hence ROAM performance is insensitive to the resolution and extent of the input terrain. Dynamic terrain and simple vertex morphing are supported.
MAPS: Multiresolution Adaptive Parameterization of Surfaces
, 1998
"... We construct smooth parameterizations of irregular connectivity triangulations of arbitrary genus 2manifolds. Our algorithm uses hierarchical simplification to efficiently induce a parameterization of the original mesh over a base domain consisting of a small number of triangles. This initial param ..."
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Cited by 265 (12 self)
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We construct smooth parameterizations of irregular connectivity triangulations of arbitrary genus 2manifolds. Our algorithm uses hierarchical simplification to efficiently induce a parameterization of the original mesh over a base domain consisting of a small number of triangles. This initial parameterization is further improved through a hierarchical smoothing procedure based on Loop subdivision applied in the parameter domain. Our method supports both fully automatic and user constrained operations. In the latter, we accommodate point and edge constraints to force the align # wailee@cs.princeton.edu + wim@belllabs.com # ps@cs.caltech.edu cowsar@belllabs.com dpd@cs.princeton.edu ment of isoparameter lines with desired features. We show how to use the parameterization for fast, hierarchical subdivision connectivity remeshing with guaranteed error bounds. The remeshing algorithm constructs an adaptively subdivided mesh directly without first resorting to uniform subdivision followed by subsequent sparsification. It thus avoids the exponential cost of the latter. Our parameterizations are also useful for texture mapping and morphing applications, among others.
Smooth ViewDependent LevelofDetail Control and Its Application to Terrain Rendering
"... The key to realtime rendering of largescale surfaces is to locally adapt surface geometric complexity to changing view parameters. Several schemes have been developed to address this problem of viewdependent levelofdetail control. Among these, the viewdependent progressive mesh (VDPM) framewor ..."
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Cited by 264 (1 self)
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The key to realtime rendering of largescale surfaces is to locally adapt surface geometric complexity to changing view parameters. Several schemes have been developed to address this problem of viewdependent levelofdetail control. Among these, the viewdependent progressive mesh (VDPM) framework represents an arbitrary triangle mesh as a hierarchy of geometrically optimized refinement transformations, from which accurate approximating meshes can be efficiently retrieved. In this paper we extend the general VDPM framework to provide temporal coherence through the runtime creation of geomorphs. These geomorphs eliminate "popping" artifacts by smoothly interpolating geometry. Their implementation requires new outputsensitive data structures, which have the added benefit of reducing memory use.
Simplifying Surfaces with Color and Texture using Quadric Error Metrics
, 1998
"... There are a variety of application areas in which there is a need for simplifying complex polygonal surface models. These models often have material properties such as colors, textures, and surface normals. Our surface simplification algorithm, based on iterative edge contraction and quadric error m ..."
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Cited by 208 (2 self)
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There are a variety of application areas in which there is a need for simplifying complex polygonal surface models. These models often have material properties such as colors, textures, and surface normals. Our surface simplification algorithm, based on iterative edge contraction and quadric error metrics, can rapidly produce high quality approximations of such models. We present a natural extension of our original error metric that can account for a wide range of vertex attributes. CR Categories: I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modelingsurface and object representations Keywords: surface simplification, multiresolution modeling, level of detail, quadric error metric, edge contraction, surface properties, discontinuity preservation 1 INTRODUCTION Many applications in computer graphics and visualization can benefit from automatic simplification of complex polygonal models. Such models are usually not only geometrically complex, but they may also have ...
Fast and Memory Efficient Polygonal Simplification
, 1998
"... Conventional wisdom says that in order to produce highquality simplified polygonal models, one must retain and use information about the original model during the simplification process. We demonstrate that excellent simplified models can be produced without the need to compare against information ..."
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Cited by 157 (7 self)
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Conventional wisdom says that in order to produce highquality simplified polygonal models, one must retain and use information about the original model during the simplification process. We demonstrate that excellent simplified models can be produced without the need to compare against information from the original geometry while performing local changes to the model. We use edge collapses to perform simplification, as do a number of other methods. We select the position of the new vertex so that the original volume of the model is maintained and we minimize the pertriangle change in volume of the tetrahedra swept out by those triangles that are moved. We also maintain surface area near boundaries and minimize the pertriangle area changes. Calculating the edge collapse priorities and the positions of the new vertices requires only the face connectivity and the the vertex locations in the intermediate model. This approach is memory efficient, allowing the simplification of very large polygonal models, and it is also fast. Moreover, simplified models created using this technique compare favorably to a number of other published simplification methods in terms of mean geometric error.
A Developer's Survey of Polygonal Simplification Algorithms
 IEEE COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND APPLICATIONS
, 2001
"... Polygonal simplification, a.k.a. level of detail, is an important tool for anyone doing interactive rendering, but how is a developer to choose among the dozens of published algorithms? This article surveys the field from a developer's point of view, attempting to identify the issues in picking ..."
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Cited by 157 (2 self)
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Polygonal simplification, a.k.a. level of detail, is an important tool for anyone doing interactive rendering, but how is a developer to choose among the dozens of published algorithms? This article surveys the field from a developer's point of view, attempting to identify the issues in picking an algorithm, relate the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, and describe a number of published algorithms as examples.
Appearancepreserving simplification
 IN PROC. SIGGRAPH’98
, 1998
"... We present a new algorithm for appearancepreserving simplification. Not only does it generate a lowpolygoncount approximation of a model, but it also preserves the appearance. This is accomplished for a particular display resolution in the sense that we properly sample the surface position, curva ..."
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Cited by 153 (9 self)
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We present a new algorithm for appearancepreserving simplification. Not only does it generate a lowpolygoncount approximation of a model, but it also preserves the appearance. This is accomplished for a particular display resolution in the sense that we properly sample the surface position, curvature, and color attributes of the input surface. We convert the input surface to a representation that decouples the sampling of these three attributes, storing the colors and normals in texture and normal maps, respectively. Our simplification algorithm employs a new texture deviation metric, which guarantees that these maps shift by no more than a userspecified number of pixels on the screen. The simplification process filters the surface position, while the runtime system filters the colors and normals on a perpixel basis. We have applied our simplification technique to several large models achieving significant amounts of simplification with little or no loss in rendering quality.
Hierarchical Face Clustering on Polygonal Surfaces
, 2001
"... Many graphics applications, and interactive systems in particular, rely on hierarchical surface representations to efficiently process very complex models. Considerable attention has been focused on hierarchies of surface approximations and their construction via automatic surface simpliﬁ ..."
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Cited by 143 (1 self)
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Many graphics applications, and interactive systems in particular, rely on hierarchical surface representations to efficiently process very complex models. Considerable attention has been focused on hierarchies of surface approximations and their construction via automatic surface simpli&#64257;cation. Such representations have proven effective for adapting the level of detail used in real time display systems. However, other applications such as raytracing, collision detection, and radiosity benefit from an alternative multiresolution framework: hierarchical partitions of the original surface geometry. We present a new method for representing a hierarchy of regions on a polygonal surface which partition that surface into a set of face clusters. These clusters, which are connected sets of faces, represent the aggregate properties of the original surface a different scales rather than providing geometric approximations of varying complexity. We also describe the combination of an effective error metric and a novel algorithm for constructing these hierarchies.