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An Implementation of Narrowing Strategies
 Journal of the ACM
, 2001
"... This paper describes an implementation of narrowing, an essential component of implementations of modern functional logic languages. These implementations rely on narrowing, in particular on some optimal narrowing strategies, to execute functional logic programs. We translate functional logic progra ..."
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Cited by 296 (118 self)
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This paper describes an implementation of narrowing, an essential component of implementations of modern functional logic languages. These implementations rely on narrowing, in particular on some optimal narrowing strategies, to execute functional logic programs. We translate functional logic programs into imperative (Java) programs without an intermediate abstract machine. A central idea of our approach is the explicit representation and processing of narrowing computations as data objects. This enables the implementation of operationally complete strategies (i.e., without backtracking) or techniques for search control (e.g., encapsulated search). Thanks to the use of an intermediate and portable representation of programs, our implementation is general enough to be used as a common back end for a wide variety of functional logic languages.
A unified computation model for functional and logic programming
 IN PROC. OF THE 24TH ACM SYMPOSIUM ON PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES (PARIS
, 1997
"... We propose a new computation model which combines the operational principles of functional languages (reduction), logic languages (nondeterministic search for solutions), and integrated functional logic languages (residuation and narrowing). This computation model combines efficient evaluation prin ..."
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Cited by 138 (67 self)
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We propose a new computation model which combines the operational principles of functional languages (reduction), logic languages (nondeterministic search for solutions), and integrated functional logic languages (residuation and narrowing). This computation model combines efficient evaluation principles of functional languages with the problemsolving capabilities of logic programming. Since the model allows the delay of function calls which are not sufficiently instantiated, it also supports a concurrent style of programming. We provide soundness and completeness results and show that known evaluation principles of functional logic languages are particular instances of this model. Thus, our model is a suitable basis for future declarative programming languages.
Curry: A Truly Functional Logic Language
, 1995
"... Functional and logic programming are the most important declarative programming paradigms, and interest in combining them has grown over the last decade. However, integrated functional logic languages are currently not widely used. This is due to the fact that the operational principles are not w ..."
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Cited by 53 (5 self)
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Functional and logic programming are the most important declarative programming paradigms, and interest in combining them has grown over the last decade. However, integrated functional logic languages are currently not widely used. This is due to the fact that the operational principles are not well understood and many different evaluation strategies have been proposed which resulted in many different functional logic languages. To overcome this situation, we propose the functional logic language Curry which can deal as a standard language in this area. It includes important ideas of existing functional logic languages and recent developments, and combines the most important features of functional and logic languages. Thus, Curry can be the basis to combine the currently separated research efforts of the functional and logic programming communities and to boost declarative programming in general. Moreover, since functions provide for more efficient evaluation strategies and ...
Parallel Evaluation Strategies for Functional Logic Languages
 In Proc. of the Fourteenth International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP’97
, 1997
"... We introduce novel, sound, complete, and locally optimal evaluation strategies for functional logic programming languages. Our strategies combine, in a nontrivial way, two landmark techniques in this area: the computation of unifiers performed by needed narrowing in inductively sequential rewrite s ..."
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Cited by 45 (24 self)
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We introduce novel, sound, complete, and locally optimal evaluation strategies for functional logic programming languages. Our strategies combine, in a nontrivial way, two landmark techniques in this area: the computation of unifiers performed by needed narrowing in inductively sequential rewrite systems and the simultaneous reduction of a necessary set of redexes performed by rewriting in weakly orthogonal, constructorbased rewrite systems. First, we define a sequential strategy similar in scope to other narrowing strategies used in modern lazy functional logic languages. Then, based on the sequential strategy, we define a parallel narrowing strategy that has several noteworthy characteristics: it is the first complete narrowing strategy which evaluates ground expressions in a fully deterministic, optimal way; it computes shortest derivations and minimal sets of solutions on inductively sequential rewrite systems; and when combined with term simplification, it subsumes and improves all r...
The Integration of Functions into Logic Programming: A Survey
, 1994
"... Functional and logic programming are the most important declarative programming paradigms, and interest in combining them has grown over the last decade. Early research concentrated on the definition and improvement of execution principles for such integrated languages, while more recently efficient ..."
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Cited by 40 (0 self)
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Functional and logic programming are the most important declarative programming paradigms, and interest in combining them has grown over the last decade. Early research concentrated on the definition and improvement of execution principles for such integrated languages, while more recently efficient implementations of these execution principles have been developed so that these languages became relevant for practical applications. In this paper we survey the development of the operational semantics as well as
Specialization of Lazy Functional Logic Programs
 IN PROC. OF THE ACM SIGPLAN CONF. ON PARTIAL EVALUATION AND SEMANTICSBASED PROGRAM MANIPULATION, PEPM'97, VOLUME 32, 12 OF SIGPLAN NOTICES
, 1997
"... Partial evaluation is a method for program specialization based on fold/unfold transformations [8, 25]. Partial evaluation of pure functional programs uses mainly static values of given data to specialize the program [15, 44]. In logic programming, the socalled static/dynamic distinction is hard ..."
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Cited by 36 (21 self)
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Partial evaluation is a method for program specialization based on fold/unfold transformations [8, 25]. Partial evaluation of pure functional programs uses mainly static values of given data to specialize the program [15, 44]. In logic programming, the socalled static/dynamic distinction is hardly present, whereas considerations of determinacy and choice points are far more important for control [12]. We discuss these issues in the context of a (lazy) functional logic language. We formalize a twophase specialization method for a nonstrict, first order, integrated language which makes use of lazy narrowing to specialize the program w.r.t. a goal. The basic algorithm (first phase) is formalized as an instance of the framework for the partial evaluation of functional logic programs of [2, 3], using lazy narrowing. However, the results inherited by [2, 3] mainly regard the termination of the PE method, while the (strong) soundness and completeness results must be restated for the lazy strategy. A postprocessing renaming scheme (second phase) is necessary which we describe and illustrate on the wellknown matching example. This phase is essential also for other nonlazy narrowing strategies, like innermost narrowing, and our method can be easily extended to these strategies. We show that our method preserves the lazy narrowing semantics and that the inclusion of simplification steps in narrowing derivations can improve control during specialization.
On Extra Variables in (Equational) Logic Programming
, 1994
"... Extra variables in a clause are variables which occur in the body but not in the head. It has been argued that extra variables are necessary and contribute to the expressive power of logic languages. In the first part of this paper, we show that this is not true in general. For this purpose, we p ..."
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Cited by 22 (2 self)
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Extra variables in a clause are variables which occur in the body but not in the head. It has been argued that extra variables are necessary and contribute to the expressive power of logic languages. In the first part of this paper, we show that this is not true in general. For this purpose, we provide a simple syntactic transformation of each logic program into a logic program without extra variables. Moreover, we show a strong correspondence between the original and the transformed program with respect to the declarative and the operational semantics. In the second part of this paper, we use a similar technique to provide new completeness results for equational logic programs with extra variables. In equational logic programming it is well known that extra variables cause problems since narrowing, the standard operational semantics for equational logic programming, may become incomplete in the presence of extra variables. Since extra variables are useful from a programmin...
A Debugging Scheme for Functional Logic Programs
 Proc. WFLP’2001
, 2002
"... We present a generic scheme for the declarative debugging of functional logic programs which is valid for eager as well as lazy programs. In particular we show that the framework extends naturally some previous work and applies to the most modern lazy strategies, such as needed narrowing. First we a ..."
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Cited by 14 (7 self)
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We present a generic scheme for the declarative debugging of functional logic programs which is valid for eager as well as lazy programs. In particular we show that the framework extends naturally some previous work and applies to the most modern lazy strategies, such as needed narrowing. First we associate to our pro grams a semantics based on a (continuous) immediate consequence operator, which models computed answers. We show that, given the intended specification of a program 7, it is possible to check the correctness of 7 by a single step of Tn. We consider then a more effective methodology which is based on abstract interpretation: by approximating the intended specification of the success set we derive a finitely terminating diagnosis method, which can be used statically and is parametric w.r.t. to the chosen approximation. In order to correct the bugs, we sketch a preliminary deductive approach which uses exampleguided unfolding. We specialize the incorrect rules w.r.t. sets of positive and negative examples which are gathered (bottomup) during the diagnosis process, so that all refutations of nega tive examples and no refutation of positive examples are excluded. Our debugging framework does not require the user to either provide error symptoms in advance or answer diicult questions concerning program correctness. We extend an implementation of our system to the case of needed narrowing and illustrate it through some examples which demonstrate the practicality of our approach.
Towards a Second Generation of Formal Description Techniques  Rationale for the Design of ELOTOS
 University of Nantes
, 1998
"... Process algebras are often advocated as suitable formalisms for the specification of telecommunication protocols and distributed systems. However, despite their mathematical basis, despite standardization attempts (most notably the Formal Description Technique Lotos), and despite an ever growing ..."
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Cited by 14 (2 self)
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Process algebras are often advocated as suitable formalisms for the specification of telecommunication protocols and distributed systems. However, despite their mathematical basis, despite standardization attempts (most notably the Formal Description Technique Lotos), and despite an ever growing number of successful casestudies, process algebras have not yet reached a wide acceptance in industry. On the other hand, description languages such as Promela or Sdl are quite popular, although they lack a formal semantics, which should prohibit their use for safetycritical systems. In this paper, we seek to merge the "best of both worlds" by attempting to define a "second generation Formal Description Technique" that would combine the strong theoretical foundations of process algebras with language features suitable for a wider industrial dissemination of formal methods. Taking the international standard Lotos as a basis, we suggest several enhancements, which fall into three ...
Combining Lazy Narrowing and Simplification
 In Proc. of the 6th International Symposium on Programming Language Implementation and Logic Programming
, 1994
"... . Languages that integrate functional and logic programming styles with a complete operational semantics are based on narrowing. In order to avoid useless computations and to deal with infinite data structures, lazy narrowing strategies have been proposed in the past. This paper presents an impo ..."
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Cited by 14 (5 self)
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. Languages that integrate functional and logic programming styles with a complete operational semantics are based on narrowing. In order to avoid useless computations and to deal with infinite data structures, lazy narrowing strategies have been proposed in the past. This paper presents an important improvement of lazy narrowing by incorporating deterministic simplification steps into lazy narrowing derivations. These simplification steps reduce the search space so that in some cases infinite search spaces are reduced to finite ones. We show that the completeness of lazy narrowing is not destroyed by the simplification process and demonstrate the improved operational behavior by means of several examples. 1 Introduction In recent years, a lot of proposals have been made to amalgamate functional and logic programming languages [19]. Functional logic languages with a sound and complete operational semantics are based on narrowing, a combination of the reduction principle of ...