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450
A generalized processor sharing approach to flow control in integrated services networks: The singlenode case
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 1993
"... AbstruetThe problem of allocating network resources to the users of an integrated services network is investigated in the context of ratebased flow control. The network is assumed to be a virtual circuiq comectionbased packet network. We show that the use of Generalized processor Sharing (GPS), w ..."
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Cited by 1666 (4 self)
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AbstruetThe problem of allocating network resources to the users of an integrated services network is investigated in the context of ratebased flow control. The network is assumed to be a virtual circuiq comectionbased packet network. We show that the use of Generalized processor Sharing (GPS), when combined with Leaky Bucket admission control, allows the network to make a wide range of worstcase performance guarantees on throughput and delay. The scheme is flexible in that d~erent users may be given widely different performance guarantees, and is efilcient in that each of the servers is work conserving. We present a practicat packetbypacket service discipline, PGPS (first proposed by Deme5 Shenker, and Keshav [7] under the name of Weighted Fair Queueing), that closely approximates GPS. This altows us to relate ressdta for GPS to the packetbypacket scheme in a precise manner. In this paper, the performance of a singleserver GPS system is analyzed exactty from the standpoint of worstcase packet delay and burstiness when the sources are constrained by leaky buckets. The worstcase sewdon backlogs are also determined. In the sequel to this paper, these results are extended to arbitrary topology networks with multiple nodes. I.
Resource pricing and the evolution of congestion control
, 1999
"... We describe ways in which the transmission control protocol of the Internet may evolve to support heterogeneous applications. We show that by appropriately marking packets at overloaded resources and by charging a fixed small amount for each mark received, endnodes are provided with the necessary i ..."
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Cited by 306 (7 self)
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We describe ways in which the transmission control protocol of the Internet may evolve to support heterogeneous applications. We show that by appropriately marking packets at overloaded resources and by charging a fixed small amount for each mark received, endnodes are provided with the necessary information and the correct incentive to use the network efficiently.
The Power of Two Choices in Randomized Load Balancing
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
, 1996
"... Suppose that n balls are placed into n bins, each ball being placed into a bin chosen independently and uniformly at random. Then, with high probability, the maximum load in any bin is approximately log n log log n . Suppose instead that each ball is placed sequentially into the least full of d ..."
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Cited by 201 (23 self)
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Suppose that n balls are placed into n bins, each ball being placed into a bin chosen independently and uniformly at random. Then, with high probability, the maximum load in any bin is approximately log n log log n . Suppose instead that each ball is placed sequentially into the least full of d bins chosen independently and uniformly at random. It has recently been shown that the maximum load is then only log log n log d +O(1) with high probability. Thus giving each ball two choices instead of just one leads to an exponential improvement in the maximum load. This result demonstrates the power of two choices, and it has several applications to load balancing in distributed systems. In this thesis, we expand upon this result by examining related models and by developing techniques for stu...
Effective bandwidths at multiclass queues
 Queueing Systems
, 1991
"... Consider a queue which serves traffic from a number of distinct sources and which is required to deliver a performance guarantee, expressed in terms of the mean delay or the probability the delay exceeds a threshold. For various simple models we show that an effective bandwidth can be associated wit ..."
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Cited by 182 (4 self)
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Consider a queue which serves traffic from a number of distinct sources and which is required to deliver a performance guarantee, expressed in terms of the mean delay or the probability the delay exceeds a threshold. For various simple models we show that an effective bandwidth can be associated with each source, and that the queue can deliver its performance guarantee by limiting the sources served so that their effective bandwidths sum to less than the capacity of the queue. Keywords: large deviations, M/G/1 queue, circuitswitched network, connection acceptance control. 1.
Statistical bandwidth sharing: a study of congestion at flow level
, 2001
"... In this paper we study the statistics of the realized throughput of elastic document transfers, accounting for the way network bandwidth is shared dynamically between the randomly varying number of concurrent flows. We first discuss the way TCP realizes statistical bandwidth sharing, illustrating es ..."
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Cited by 174 (17 self)
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In this paper we study the statistics of the realized throughput of elastic document transfers, accounting for the way network bandwidth is shared dynamically between the randomly varying number of concurrent flows. We first discuss the way TCP realizes statistical bandwidth sharing, illustrating essential properties by means of packet level simulations. Mathematical flow level models based on the theory of stochastic networks are then proposed to explain the observed behavior. A notable result is that first order performance (e.g., mean throughput) is insensitive with respect both to the flow size distribution and the flow arrival process, as long as “sessions ” arrive according to a Poisson process. Perceived performance is shown to depend most significantly on whether demand at flow level is less than or greater than available capacity. The models provide a key to understanding the effectiveness of techniques for congestion management and service differentiation. 1.
Impact of Fairness on Internet Performance
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF ACM SIGMETRICS
, 2000
"... We discuss the relevance of fairness as a design objective for congestion control mechanisms in the Internet. Specifically, we consider a backbone network shared by a dynamic number of shortlived flows, and study the impact of bandwidth sharing on network performance. In particular, we prove that f ..."
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Cited by 156 (11 self)
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We discuss the relevance of fairness as a design objective for congestion control mechanisms in the Internet. Specifically, we consider a backbone network shared by a dynamic number of shortlived flows, and study the impact of bandwidth sharing on network performance. In particular, we prove that for a broad class of fair bandwidth allocations, the total number of ows in progress remains finite if the load of every link is less than one. We also show that provided the bandwidth allocation is "sufficiently" fair, performance is optimal in the sense that the throughput of the ows is mainly determined by their access rate. Neither property is guaranteed with unfair bandwidth allocations, when priority is given to one class of ow with respect to another. This suggests current proposals for a differentiated services Internet may lead to suboptimal utilization of network resources.
On coding for reliable communication over packet networks
 in Proc. 42nd Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, Sept.–Oct. 2004, invited
"... Abstract — We present a capacityachieving coding scheme for unicast or multicast over lossy packet networks. In the scheme, intermediate nodes perform additional coding yet do not decode nor even wait for a block of packets before sending out coded packets. Rather, whenever they have a transmission ..."
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Cited by 127 (35 self)
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Abstract — We present a capacityachieving coding scheme for unicast or multicast over lossy packet networks. In the scheme, intermediate nodes perform additional coding yet do not decode nor even wait for a block of packets before sending out coded packets. Rather, whenever they have a transmission opportunity, they send out coded packets formed from random linear combinations of previously received packets. All coding and decoding operations have polynomial complexity. We show that the scheme is capacityachieving as long as packets received on a link arrive according to a process that has an average rate. Thus, packet losses on a link may exhibit correlation in time or with losses on other links. In the special case of Poisson traffic with i.i.d. losses, we give error exponents that quantify the rate of decay of the probability of error with coding delay. Our analysis of the scheme shows that it is not only capacityachieving, but that the propagation of packets carrying “innovative ” information follows the propagation of jobs through a queueing network, and therefore fluid flow models yield good approximations. We consider networks with both lossy pointtopoint and broadcast links, allowing us to model both wireline and wireless packet networks. I.
CHOKe  A stateless active queue management scheme for approximating fair bandwidth allocation
, 1999
"... We investigate the problem of providing a fair bandwidth allocation to each of n ows that share the outgoing link of a congested router. The buer at the outgoing link is a simple FIFO, shared by packets belonging to the n ows. We devise a simple packet dropping scheme, called CHOKe, that discrim ..."
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Cited by 125 (6 self)
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We investigate the problem of providing a fair bandwidth allocation to each of n ows that share the outgoing link of a congested router. The buer at the outgoing link is a simple FIFO, shared by packets belonging to the n ows. We devise a simple packet dropping scheme, called CHOKe, that discriminates against the ows which submit more packets/sec than is allowed by their fair share. By doing this, the scheme aims to approximate the fair queueing policy. Since it is stateless and easy to implement, CHOKe controls unresponsive or misbehaving ows with a minimum overhead. 1 Introduction The Internet provides a connectionless, best eort, endtoend packet service using the IP protocol. It depends on congestion avoidance mechanisms implemented in the transport layer protocols, like TCP, to provide good service under heavy load. However, a lot of TCP implementations do not include the congestion avoidance mechanism either deliberately or by accident. Moreover, there are a growi...
Performance and Stability of Communication Networks via Robust Exponential Bounds
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 1993
"... We propose a new way for evaluating the performance of packet switching communication networks under a fixed (session based) routing strategy. Our approach is based on properly bounding the probability distribution functions of the system input processes. The bounds we suggest, which are decaying ex ..."
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Cited by 122 (3 self)
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We propose a new way for evaluating the performance of packet switching communication networks under a fixed (session based) routing strategy. Our approach is based on properly bounding the probability distribution functions of the system input processes. The bounds we suggest, which are decaying exponentials, possess three convenient properties: When the inputs to an isolated network element are all bounded, they result in bounded outputs, and assure that the delays and queues in this element have exponentially decaying distributions; In some network settings bounded inputs result in bounded outputs; Natural traffic processes can be shown to satisfy such bounds. Consequently, our method enables the analysis of various previously intractable setups. We provide sufficient conditions for the stability of such networks, and derive upper bounds for the interesting parameters of network performance. 1 Introduction In this paper we consider data communication networks, and the problem of ev...
Stability Of Queueing Networks And Scheduling Policies
 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
, 1995
"... Usually, the stability of queueing networks is established by explicitly determining the invariant distribution. However, outside of the narrow class of queueing networks possessing a product form solution, such explicit solutions are rare, and consequently little is known concerning stability too. ..."
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Cited by 110 (16 self)
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Usually, the stability of queueing networks is established by explicitly determining the invariant distribution. However, outside of the narrow class of queueing networks possessing a product form solution, such explicit solutions are rare, and consequently little is known concerning stability too. We develop here a programmatic procedure for establishing the stability of queueing networks and scheduling policies. The method uses linear or nonlinear programming to determine what is an appropriate quadratic functional to use as a Lyapunov function. If the underlying system is Markovian, our method establishes not only positive recurrence and the existence of a steadystate probability distribution, but also the geometric convergence of an exponential moment. We illustrate this method on several example problems. For an example of an open reentrant line, we show that all stationary nonidling policies are stable for all load factors less than one. This includes the well known First Com...