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Handwritten Digit Classification using Higher Order Singular Value Decomposition
"... In this paper we present two algorithms for handwritten digit classification based on the higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). The first algorithm uses HOSVD for construction of the class models and achieves classification results with error rate lower than 6%. The second algorithm use ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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In this paper we present two algorithms for handwritten digit classification based on the higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). The first algorithm uses HOSVD for construction of the class models and achieves classification results with error rate lower than 6%. The second algorithm uses the HOSVD for tensor approximation simultaneously in two modes. Classification results for the second algorithm are almost down at 5 % even though the approximation reduces the original training data with more than 98 % before the construction of the class models. The actual classification in the test phase for both algorithms is conducted by solving a series least squares problems. Considering computational amount for the test presented the second algorithm is twice as efficient as the first one.
An interactive mathematical handwriting recognizer for the Pocket PC
, 2002
"... Handwriting is the primary input method for handheld computers because they are too small physically to have keyboards. To investigate the requirements for upcoming computer algebra systems on handheld computers, we designed and implemented an application for recognizing online handwritten mathema ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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Handwriting is the primary input method for handheld computers because they are too small physically to have keyboards. To investigate the requirements for upcoming computer algebra systems on handheld computers, we designed and implemented an application for recognizing online handwritten mathematical expressions on the pocket PC. The objective was to translate handwriting mathematical expressions into corresponding presentation MathML, which can be understood by computer algebra systems. This application consists of three components: 1) a handwriting recognizer for recognizing individual mathematical symbols, 2) a structural analyzer for interpreting and maintaining the relationship between symbols of the expression, and 3) a generator for generating MathML code. Currently it is able to recognize simple expressions including polynomial equations, fractions, trigonometric functions, allowing nested structures. This application could serve as a bridge for mathematical users to interact with the computer algebra systems on handheld computers.
D.: Mathbrush: a system for doing math on penbased devices
 In: The Eighth IAPR Workshop on Document Analysis Systems (DAS
, 2008
"... Many online (interactive) mathematics recognition systems allow the creation of typeset equations, normally in LaTeX, but they do not support mathematical problem solving. In this paper, we present MathBrush, a system that allows users to draw math input using a peninput device on a tablet compute ..."
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Cited by 9 (2 self)
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Many online (interactive) mathematics recognition systems allow the creation of typeset equations, normally in LaTeX, but they do not support mathematical problem solving. In this paper, we present MathBrush, a system that allows users to draw math input using a peninput device on a tablet computer, recognizes the math expression, and then supports mathematical transformation and problem solving using backend Computer Algebra Systems (CAS). We describe the architecture of the MathBrush system, which includes modules that support symbol recognition, semantic analysis, the transfer of recognized expressions to backend CAS, and interface techniques for interacting with CAS output. We also identify unique challenges associated with recognition for math problem solving, such as the need for deeper semantic analysis than is required by LATEX, and the need to deal with ambiguities in user input. Our experiences serve to inform researchers seeking to design interactive mathematics recognition systems geared toward mathematical problem solving. 1.
Adaptive Online Recognition of Handwriting
, 1998
"... Contents 1 Background 4 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 Types of handwriting recognition systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.1 Ooeline recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.2 Online recognition . . . . . ..."
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Cited by 9 (6 self)
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Contents 1 Background 4 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 Types of handwriting recognition systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.1 Ooeline recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.2 Online recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.3 Character sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.4 Writing style variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2.4.1 Variations of characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2.4.2 Alignment of characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.2.4.3 Personal background factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.2.4.4 Situational factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2.4.5 Material factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2.4.6 Constraints on writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2.5 Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.3 Beneøt
D.: A preliminary report on the MathBrush penmath system
 In: Maple 2006 Conference
, 2006
"... In this paper we give a preliminary description of an experimental system, currently named MathBrush, for working with mathematics using penbased devices. The system allows a user to enter mathematical expressions with a pen and to then do mathematical computation using a computer algebra system. T ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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In this paper we give a preliminary description of an experimental system, currently named MathBrush, for working with mathematics using penbased devices. The system allows a user to enter mathematical expressions with a pen and to then do mathematical computation using a computer algebra system. The system provides a simple and easy way for users to verify the correctness of their handwritten expressions and, if needed, to correct any errors in recognition. Choosing mathematical operations is done making use of context menus, both with input and output expressions.
MathBrush: An Experimental PenBased Math System
"... It is widely believed that mathematics will be one of the major applications for Tablet PCs and other penbased devices. In this paper we discuss many of the issues that make doing mathematics on such penbased devices a hard task. We give a preliminary description of an experimental system, current ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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It is widely believed that mathematics will be one of the major applications for Tablet PCs and other penbased devices. In this paper we discuss many of the issues that make doing mathematics on such penbased devices a hard task. We give a preliminary description of an experimental system, currently named MathBrush, for working with mathematics using penbased devices. The system allows a user to enter mathematical expressions with a pen and to then do mathematical computation using a computer algebra system. The system provides a simple and easy way for users to verify the correctness of their handwritten expressions and, if needed, to correct any errors in recognition. Choosing mathematical operations is done making use of context menus, both with input and output expressions. Key words: PCtablets, Penbased math, Computer Algebra systems 1
ACTA POLYTECHNICA SCANDINAVICA MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING SERIES No. 119
"... Adaptive methods for online recognition of isolated handwritten characters ..."
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Adaptive methods for online recognition of isolated handwritten characters
Sketch Understanding for Engineering Software
, 2003
"... this document.) Data points are collected as a time sequenced (x,y) points sampled along the stylus' trajectory. The program gathers these points and attempts to fit one of the two types of geometric primitives: (1) A straight line segment, or (2) An arc segment of a circle. We refer to this p ..."
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this document.) Data points are collected as a time sequenced (x,y) points sampled along the stylus' trajectory. The program gathers these points and attempts to fit one of the two types of geometric primitives: (1) A straight line segment, or (2) An arc segment of a circle. We refer to this process as `segmentation '. Figure 5 shows an example. The figure on the left corresponds to the unprocessed ink as obtained directly from the digitizing tablet. The figure on the right shows the resulting symbol after segmentation
Examination committee:
"... Handwriting is one of the most natural ways for a human to record knowledge. In recent years this type of humancomputer interaction has received increasing attention due to the rapid evolution of digital ink hardware. This thesis contributes to the art of efficient recognition of handwriting and co ..."
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Handwriting is one of the most natural ways for a human to record knowledge. In recent years this type of humancomputer interaction has received increasing attention due to the rapid evolution of digital ink hardware. This thesis contributes to the art of efficient recognition of handwriting and compact storage of digital ink. In the first part of the thesis, we focus on the development of algorithms for transformationinvariant recognition of handwritten mathematical characters. We first implement a rotationindependent classification method based on the theory of integral invariants of parametric curves. We then extend this method to shearinvariant recognition. Presence of affine transformations creates difficulties in parameterization of coordinate functions and size normalization of handwritten samples. We therefore present an affineinvariant size normalization approach and develop a mixed parameterization, which is insensitive to large affine transformations and yields a relatively high recognition rate.
unknown title
, 2005
"... Handwritten digit classification using higher order singular value decomposition ..."
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Handwritten digit classification using higher order singular value decomposition