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89
Compressive sensing
 IEEE Signal Processing Mag
, 2007
"... The Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem tells us that in order to not lose information when uniformly sampling a signal we must sample at least two times faster than its bandwidth. In many applications, including digital image and video cameras, the Nyquist rate can be so high that we end up with too m ..."
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Cited by 696 (62 self)
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The Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem tells us that in order to not lose information when uniformly sampling a signal we must sample at least two times faster than its bandwidth. In many applications, including digital image and video cameras, the Nyquist rate can be so high that we end up with too many samples and must compress in order to store or transmit them. In other applications, including imaging systems (medical scanners, radars) and highspeed analogtodigital converters, increasing the sampling rate or density beyond the current stateoftheart is very expensive. In this lecture, we will learn about a new technique that tackles these issues using compressive sensing [1, 2]. We will replace the conventional sampling and reconstruction operations with a more general linear measurement scheme coupled with an optimization in order to acquire certain kinds of signals at a rate significantly below Nyquist. 2
Structured variable selection with sparsityinducing norms
, 2011
"... We consider the empirical risk minimization problem for linear supervised learning, with regularization by structured sparsityinducing norms. These are defined as sums of Euclidean norms on certain subsets of variables, extending the usual ℓ1norm and the group ℓ1norm by allowing the subsets to ov ..."
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Cited by 187 (27 self)
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We consider the empirical risk minimization problem for linear supervised learning, with regularization by structured sparsityinducing norms. These are defined as sums of Euclidean norms on certain subsets of variables, extending the usual ℓ1norm and the group ℓ1norm by allowing the subsets to overlap. This leads to a specific set of allowed nonzero patterns for the solutions of such problems. We first explore the relationship between the groups defining the norm and the resulting nonzero patterns, providing both forward and backward algorithms to go back and forth from groups to patterns. This allows the design of norms adapted to specific prior knowledge expressed in terms of nonzero patterns. We also present an efficient active set algorithm, and analyze the consistency of variable selection for leastsquares linear regression in low and highdimensional settings.
Learning with Structured Sparsity
"... This paper investigates a new learning formulation called structured sparsity, which is a natural extension of the standard sparsity concept in statistical learning and compressive sensing. By allowing arbitrary structures on the feature set, this concept generalizes the group sparsity idea. A gener ..."
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Cited by 127 (15 self)
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This paper investigates a new learning formulation called structured sparsity, which is a natural extension of the standard sparsity concept in statistical learning and compressive sensing. By allowing arbitrary structures on the feature set, this concept generalizes the group sparsity idea. A general theory is developed for learning with structured sparsity, based on the notion of coding complexity associated with the structure. Moreover, a structured greedy algorithm is proposed to efficiently solve the structured sparsity problem. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of structured sparsity over standard sparsity. 1.
Bayesian compressive sensing via belief propagation
 IEEE Trans. Signal Processing
, 2010
"... Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging field based on the revelation that a small collection of linear projections of a sparse signal contains enough information for stable, subNyquist signal acquisition. When a statistical characterization of the signal is available, Bayesian inference can comple ..."
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Cited by 125 (19 self)
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Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging field based on the revelation that a small collection of linear projections of a sparse signal contains enough information for stable, subNyquist signal acquisition. When a statistical characterization of the signal is available, Bayesian inference can complement conventional CS methods based on linear programming or greedy algorithms. We perform approximate Bayesian inference using belief propagation (BP) decoding, which represents the CS encoding matrix as a graphical model. Fast encoding and decoding is provided using sparse encoding matrices, which also improve BP convergence by reducing the presence of loops in the graph. To decode a lengthN signal containing K large coefficients, our CSBP decoding algorithm uses O(K log(N)) measurements and O(N log 2 (N)) computation. Finally, sparse encoding matrices and the CSBP decoding algorithm can be modified to support a variety of signal models and measurement noise. 1
Structured compressed sensing: From theory to applications
 IEEE TRANS. SIGNAL PROCESS
, 2011
"... Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging field that has attracted considerable research interest over the past few years. Previous review articles in CS limit their scope to standard discretetodiscrete measurement architectures using matrices of randomized nature and signal models based on standard ..."
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Cited by 104 (16 self)
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Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging field that has attracted considerable research interest over the past few years. Previous review articles in CS limit their scope to standard discretetodiscrete measurement architectures using matrices of randomized nature and signal models based on standard sparsity. In recent years, CS has worked its way into several new application areas. This, in turn, necessitates a fresh look on many of the basics of CS. The random matrix measurement operator must be replaced by more structured sensing architectures that correspond to the characteristics of feasible acquisition hardware. The standard sparsity prior has to be extended to include a much richer class of signals and to encode broader data models, including continuoustime signals. In our overview, the theme is exploiting signal and measurement structure in compressive sensing. The prime focus is bridging theory and practice; that is, to pinpoint the potential of structured CS strategies to emerge from the math to the hardware. Our summary highlights new directions as well as relations to more traditional CS, with the hope of serving both as a review to practitioners wanting to join this emerging field, and as a reference for researchers that attempts to put some of the existing ideas in perspective of practical applications.
NonParametric Bayesian Dictionary Learning for Sparse Image Representations
"... Nonparametric Bayesian techniques are considered for learning dictionaries for sparse image representations, with applications in denoising, inpainting and compressive sensing (CS). The beta process is employed as a prior for learning the dictionary, and this nonparametric method naturally infers ..."
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Cited by 92 (34 self)
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Nonparametric Bayesian techniques are considered for learning dictionaries for sparse image representations, with applications in denoising, inpainting and compressive sensing (CS). The beta process is employed as a prior for learning the dictionary, and this nonparametric method naturally infers an appropriate dictionary size. The Dirichlet process and a probit stickbreaking process are also considered to exploit structure within an image. The proposed method can learn a sparse dictionary in situ; training images may be exploited if available, but they are not required. Further, the noise variance need not be known, and can be nonstationary. Another virtue of the proposed method is that sequential inference can be readily employed, thereby allowing scaling to large images. Several example results are presented, using both Gibbs and variational Bayesian inference, with comparisons to other stateoftheart approaches.
Proximal Methods for Hierarchical Sparse Coding
, 2010
"... Sparse coding consists in representing signals as sparse linear combinations of atoms selected from a dictionary. We consider an extension of this framework where the atoms are further assumed to be embedded in a tree. This is achieved using a recently introduced treestructured sparse regularizatio ..."
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Cited by 83 (18 self)
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Sparse coding consists in representing signals as sparse linear combinations of atoms selected from a dictionary. We consider an extension of this framework where the atoms are further assumed to be embedded in a tree. This is achieved using a recently introduced treestructured sparse regularization norm, which has proven useful in several applications. This norm leads to regularized problems that are difficult to optimize, and we propose in this paper efficient algorithms for solving them. More precisely, we show that the proximal operator associated with this norm is computable exactly via a dual approach that can be viewed as the composition of elementary proximal operators. Our procedure has a complexity linear, or close to linear, in the number of atoms, and allows the use of accelerated gradient techniques to solve the treestructured sparse approximation problem at the same computational cost as traditional ones using the ℓ1norm. Our method is efficient and scales gracefully to millions of variables, which we illustrate in two types of applications: first, we consider fixed hierarchical dictionaries of wavelets to denoise natural images. Then, we apply our optimization tools in the context of dictionary learning, where learned dictionary elements naturally organize in a prespecified arborescent structure, leading to a better performance in reconstruction of natural image patches. When applied to text documents, our method learns hierarchies of topics, thus providing a competitive alternative to probabilistic topic models.
Structured Sparse Principal Component Analysis
, 2009
"... We present an extension of sparse PCA, or sparse dictionary learning, where the sparsity patterns of all dictionary elements are structured and constrained to belong to a prespecified set of shapes. This structured sparse PCA is based on a structured regularization recently introduced by [1]. While ..."
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Cited by 70 (14 self)
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We present an extension of sparse PCA, or sparse dictionary learning, where the sparsity patterns of all dictionary elements are structured and constrained to belong to a prespecified set of shapes. This structured sparse PCA is based on a structured regularization recently introduced by [1]. While classical sparse priors only deal with cardinality, the regularization we use encodes higherorder information about the data. We propose an efficient and simple optimization procedure to solve this problem. Experiments with two practical tasks, face recognition and the study of the dynamics of a protein complex, demonstrate the benefits of the proposed structured approach over unstructured approaches. 1
Turbo reconstruction of structured sparse signals
 in Proc. 44th Annual Conf. Information Sciences and Systems
, 2010
"... Abstract—This paper considers the reconstruction of structuredsparse signals from noisy linear observations. In particular, the support of the signal coefficients is parameterized by hidden binary pattern, and a structured probabilistic prior (e.g., Markov random chain/field/tree) is assumed on the ..."
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Cited by 59 (26 self)
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Abstract—This paper considers the reconstruction of structuredsparse signals from noisy linear observations. In particular, the support of the signal coefficients is parameterized by hidden binary pattern, and a structured probabilistic prior (e.g., Markov random chain/field/tree) is assumed on the pattern. Exact inference is discussed and an approximate inference scheme, based on loopy belief propagation (BP), is proposed. The proposed scheme iterates between exploitation of the observationstructure and exploitation of the patternstructure, and is closely related to noncoherent turbo equalization, as used in digital communication receivers. An algorithm that exploits the observation structure is then detailed based on approximate message passing ideas. The application of EXIT charts is discussed, and empirical phase transition plots are calculated for Markovchain structured sparsity. 1 I.
LowDimensional Models for Dimensionality Reduction and Signal Recovery: A Geometric Perspective
, 2009
"... We compare and contrast from a geometric perspective a number of lowdimensional signal models that support stable informationpreserving dimensionality reduction. We consider sparse and compressible signal models for deterministic and random signals, structured sparse and compressible signal model ..."
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Cited by 47 (12 self)
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We compare and contrast from a geometric perspective a number of lowdimensional signal models that support stable informationpreserving dimensionality reduction. We consider sparse and compressible signal models for deterministic and random signals, structured sparse and compressible signal models, point clouds, and manifold signal models. Each model has a particular geometrical structure that enables signal information in to be stably preserved via a simple linear and nonadaptive projection to a much lower dimensional space whose dimension either is independent of the ambient dimension at best or grows logarithmically with it at worst. As a bonus, we point out a common misconception related to probabilistic compressible signal models, that is, that the generalized Gaussian and Laplacian random models do not support stable linear dimensionality reduction.