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Evolutionary Computing
, 2005
"... Evolutionary computing (EC) is an exciting development in Computer Science. It amounts to building, applying and studying algorithms based on the Darwinian principles of natural selection. In this paper we briefly introduce the main concepts behind evolutionary computing. We present the main compone ..."
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Cited by 415 (31 self)
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Evolutionary computing (EC) is an exciting development in Computer Science. It amounts to building, applying and studying algorithms based on the Darwinian principles of natural selection. In this paper we briefly introduce the main concepts behind evolutionary computing. We present the main components all evolutionary algorithms (EA), sketch the differences between different types of EAs and survey application areas ranging from optimization, modeling and simulation to entertainment.
Ant algorithms for discrete optimization
 ARTIFICIAL LIFE
, 1999
"... This article presents an overview of recent work on ant algorithms, that is, algorithms for discrete optimization that took inspiration from the observation of ant colonies’ foraging behavior, and introduces the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. In the first part of the article the basic ..."
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Cited by 373 (43 self)
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This article presents an overview of recent work on ant algorithms, that is, algorithms for discrete optimization that took inspiration from the observation of ant colonies’ foraging behavior, and introduces the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. In the first part of the article the basic biological findings on real ants are reviewed and their artificial counterparts as well as the ACO metaheuristic are defined. In the second part of the article a number of applications of ACO algorithms to combinatorial optimization and routing in communications networks are described. We conclude with a discussion of related work and of some of the most important aspects of the ACO metaheuristic.
Completely Derandomized SelfAdaptation in Evolution Strategies
 Evolutionary Computation
, 2001
"... This paper puts forward two useful methods for selfadaptation of the mutation distribution  the concepts of derandomization and cumulation. Principle shortcomings of the concept of mutative strategy parameter control and two levels of derandomization are reviewed. Basic demands on the selfadapta ..."
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Cited by 363 (39 self)
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This paper puts forward two useful methods for selfadaptation of the mutation distribution  the concepts of derandomization and cumulation. Principle shortcomings of the concept of mutative strategy parameter control and two levels of derandomization are reviewed. Basic demands on the selfadaptation of arbitrary (normal) mutation distributions are developed. Applying arbitrary, normal mutation distributions is equivalent to applying a general, linear problem encoding.
Predictive Models for the Breeder Genetic Algorithm  I. Continuous Parameter Optimization
 EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 1993
"... In this paper a new genetic algorithm called the Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA) is introduced. The BGA is based on artificial selection similar to that used by human breeders. A predictive model for the BGA is presented which is derived from quantitative genetics. The model is used to predict t ..."
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Cited by 360 (25 self)
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In this paper a new genetic algorithm called the Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA) is introduced. The BGA is based on artificial selection similar to that used by human breeders. A predictive model for the BGA is presented which is derived from quantitative genetics. The model is used to predict the behavior of the BGA for simple test functions. Different mutation schemes are compared by computing the expected progress to the solution. The numerical performance of the BGA is demonstrated on a test suite of multimodal functions. The number of function evaluations needed to locate the optimum scales only as n ln(n) where n is the number of parameters. Results up to n = 1000 are reported.
Differential Evolution  A simple and efficient adaptive scheme for global optimization over continuous spaces
, 1995
"... A new heuristic approach for minimizing possibly nonlinear and non differentiable continuous space functions is presented. By means of an extensive testbed, which includes the De Jong functions, it will be demonstrated that the new method converges faster and with more certainty than Adaptive Simula ..."
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Cited by 315 (5 self)
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A new heuristic approach for minimizing possibly nonlinear and non differentiable continuous space functions is presented. By means of an extensive testbed, which includes the De Jong functions, it will be demonstrated that the new method converges faster and with more certainty than Adaptive Simulated Annealing as well as the Annealed Nelder&Mead approach, both of which have a reputation for being very powerful. The new method requires few control variables, is robust, easy to use and lends itself very well to parallel computation. ________________________________________ 1) International Computer Science Institute, 1947 Center Street, Berkeley, CA 947041198, Suite 600, Fax: 5106437684. Email: storn@icsi.berkeley.edu. On leave from Siemens AG, ZFE T SN 2, OttoHahn Ring 6, D81739 Muenchen, Germany. Fax: 0114963644577, Email: rainer.storn@zfe.siemens.de. 2) 836 Owl Circle, Vacaville, CA 95687, kprice@solano.community.net. Introduction Problems which involve global optimiz...
A Genetic Algorithm Tutorial
 Statistics and Computing
, 1994
"... This tutorial covers the canonical genetic algorithm as well as more experimental forms of genetic algorithms, including parallel island models and parallel cellular genetic algorithms. The tutorial also illustrates genetic search byhyperplane sampling. The theoretical foundations of genetic algorit ..."
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Cited by 248 (5 self)
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This tutorial covers the canonical genetic algorithm as well as more experimental forms of genetic algorithms, including parallel island models and parallel cellular genetic algorithms. The tutorial also illustrates genetic search byhyperplane sampling. The theoretical foundations of genetic algorithms are reviewed, include the schema theorem as well as recently developed exact models of the canonical genetic algorithm.
A Survey of Evolution Strategies
 Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms
, 1991
"... Similar to Genetic Algorithms, Evolution Strategies (ESs) are algorithms which imitate the principles of natural evolution as a method to solve parameter optimization problems. The development of Evolution Strategies from the first mutationselection scheme to the refined (¯,)ES including the gen ..."
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Cited by 238 (3 self)
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Similar to Genetic Algorithms, Evolution Strategies (ESs) are algorithms which imitate the principles of natural evolution as a method to solve parameter optimization problems. The development of Evolution Strategies from the first mutationselection scheme to the refined (¯,)ES including the general concept of selfadaptation of the strategy parameters for the mutation variances as well as their covariances are described. 1 Introduction The idea to use principles of organic evolution processes as rules for optimum seeking procedures emerged independently on both sides of the Atlantic ocean more than two decades ago. Both approaches rely upon imitating the collective learning paradigm of natural populations, based upon Darwin's observations and the modern synthetic theory of evolution. In the USA Holland introduced Genetic Algorithms in the 60ies, embedded into the general framework of adaptation [Hol75]. He also mentioned the applicability to parameter optimization which was fir...
Evolutionary computation: Comments on the history and current state
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 1997
"... Evolutionary computation has started to receive significant attention during the last decade, although the origins can be traced back to the late 1950’s. This article surveys the history as well as the current state of this rapidly growing field. We describe the purpose, the general structure, and ..."
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Cited by 237 (0 self)
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Evolutionary computation has started to receive significant attention during the last decade, although the origins can be traced back to the late 1950’s. This article surveys the history as well as the current state of this rapidly growing field. We describe the purpose, the general structure, and the working principles of different approaches, including genetic algorithms (GA) [with links to genetic programming (GP) and classifier systems (CS)], evolution strategies (ES), and evolutionary programming (EP) by analysis and comparison of their most important constituents (i.e., representations, variation operators, reproduction, and selection mechanism). Finally, we give a brief overview on the manifold of application domains, although this necessarily must remain incomplete.
Evolution of Homing Navigation in a Real Mobile Robot
 IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and CyberneticsPart B: Cybernetics
, 1996
"... Abstract  In this paper we describe the evolution of a discretetime recurrent neural network to control a real mobile robot. In all our experiments the evolutionary procedure is carried out entirely on the physical robot without human intervention. We showthat the autonomous development of a set o ..."
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Cited by 220 (26 self)
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Abstract  In this paper we describe the evolution of a discretetime recurrent neural network to control a real mobile robot. In all our experiments the evolutionary procedure is carried out entirely on the physical robot without human intervention. We showthat the autonomous development of a set of behaviors for locating a battery charger and periodically returning to it can be achieved by lifting constraints in the design of the robot/environment interactions that were employed in a preliminary experiment. The emergent homing behavior is based on the autonomous development ofaninternal neural topographic map (which is not predesigned) that allows the robot to choose the appropriate trajectory as function of location and remaining energy.
Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: Overview and conceptual comparison
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2003
"... The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important meta ..."
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Cited by 194 (14 self)
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The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important metaheuristics from a conceptual point of view. We outline the different components and concepts that are used in the different metaheuristics in order to analyze their similarities and differences. Two very important concepts in metaheuristics are intensification and diversification. These are the two forces that largely determine the behaviour of a metaheuristic. They are in some way contrary but also complementary to each other. We introduce a framework, that we call the I&D frame, in order to put different intensification and diversification components into relation with each other. Outlining the advantages and disadvantages of different metaheuristic approaches we conclude by pointing out the importance of hybridization of metaheuristics as well as the integration of metaheuristics and other methods for optimization.