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**1 - 3**of**3**### Propositional Approximations for Bounded Model Checking of Partial Circuit Designs

"... Bounded model checking of partial circuit designs enables the detection of errors even when the implementation of the design is not finished. The behavior of the missing parts can be modeled by a conservative extension of propositional logic, called 01X-logic. Then the transitions of the underlying ..."

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Bounded model checking of partial circuit designs enables the detection of errors even when the implementation of the design is not finished. The behavior of the missing parts can be modeled by a conservative extension of propositional logic, called 01X-logic. Then the transitions of the underlying (incomplete) sequential circuit under verification have to be represented adequately. In this work, we investigate the difference between a relation-oriented and a function-oriented approach for this issue. Experimental results on a large set of examples show that the function-oriented representation is most often superior w. r. t. (1) CPU runtime and (2) accuracy regarding the ability to find a counterexample, such that by using the function-oriented approach an increase of accuracy up to 210% and a speed-up of the CPU runtime up to 390 % compared to the relation-oriented approach are achieved. But there are also relevant examples, e. g. a VLIW-ALU, for which the relation-oriented approach outperforms the function-oriented one by 300 % in terms of CPU-time, showing that both approaches are efficient for different scenarios.

### Equivalence Checking for Partial Implementations Revisited

"... In this paper we consider the problem of checking whether a partial implementation can (still) be extended to a complete design which is equivalent to a given full specification. In particular, we investigate the relationship between the equivalence checking problem for partial implementations (PEC) ..."

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In this paper we consider the problem of checking whether a partial implementation can (still) be extended to a complete design which is equivalent to a given full specification. In particular, we investigate the relationship between the equivalence checking problem for partial implementations (PEC) and the validity problem for quantified Boolean formulae (QBF) with so-called Henkin quantifiers. Our analysis leads us to a sound and complete algorithmic solution to the PEC problem as well as to an exact complexity theoretical classification of the problem. 1.

### Fast DQBF Refutation

, 2014

"... Abstract. Dependency Quantified Boolean Formulas (DQBF) extend QBF with Henkin quantifiers, which allow for non-linear dependencies between the quantified variables. This extension is useful in verification problems for incomplete designs, such as the partial equivalence check-ing (PEC) problem, whe ..."

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Abstract. Dependency Quantified Boolean Formulas (DQBF) extend QBF with Henkin quantifiers, which allow for non-linear dependencies between the quantified variables. This extension is useful in verification problems for incomplete designs, such as the partial equivalence check-ing (PEC) problem, where a partial circuit, with some parts left open as “black boxes”, is compared against a full circuit. The PEC problem is to decide whether the black boxes in the partial circuit can be filled in such a way that the two circuits become equivalent, while respecting that each black box only observes the subset of the signals that are des-ignated as its input. We present a new algorithm that efficiently refutes unsatisfiable DQBF formulas. The algorithm detects situations in which already a subset of the possible assignments of the universally quantified variables suffices to rule out a satisfying assignment of the existentially quantified variables. Our experimental evaluation on PEC benchmarks shows that the new algorithm is a significant improvement both over approximative QBF-based methods, where our results are much more accurate, and over precise methods based on variable elimination, where the new algorithm scales better in the number of Henkin quantifiers. This is an extended version of [8]. 1