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13
Model Checking AgentSpeak
 AAMAS'03
, 2003
"... This paper introduces AgentSpeak(F), a variation of the BDI logic programming language AgentSpeak(L) intended to permit the modeltheoretic verification of multiagent systems. After briefly introducing AgentSpeak(F) and discussing its relationship to AgentSpeak(L), we show how AgentSpeak(F) program ..."
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Cited by 101 (17 self)
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This paper introduces AgentSpeak(F), a variation of the BDI logic programming language AgentSpeak(L) intended to permit the modeltheoretic verification of multiagent systems. After briefly introducing AgentSpeak(F) and discussing its relationship to AgentSpeak(L), we show how AgentSpeak(F) programs can be transformed into Promela, the model specification language for the Spin modelchecking system. We also describe how specifications written in a simplified form of BDI logic can be transformed into Spinformat linear temporal logic formul. With our approach, it is thus possible to automatically verify whether or not multiagent systems implemented in AgentSpeak(F) satisfy specifications expressed as BDI logic formul. We illustrate our approach with a short case study, in which we show how BDI properties of a simulated auction system implemented in AgentSpeak(F) were verified.
Verifying MultiAgent Programs by Model Checking
 Journal of Autonomous Agents and MultiAgent Systems
, 2006
"... Abstract. This paper gives an overview of our recent work on an approach to verifying multiagent programs. We automatically translate multiagent systems programmed in the logicbased agentoriented programming language AgentSpeak into either Promela or Java, and then use the associated Spin and JP ..."
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Cited by 46 (10 self)
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Abstract. This paper gives an overview of our recent work on an approach to verifying multiagent programs. We automatically translate multiagent systems programmed in the logicbased agentoriented programming language AgentSpeak into either Promela or Java, and then use the associated Spin and JPF model checkers to verify the resulting systems. We also describe the simplified BDI logical language that is used to write the properties we want the systems to satisfy. The approach is illustrated by means of a simple case study.
Verifiable MultiAgent Programs
"... AgentSpeak is a reactive planning language for programming autonomous agents. It has recently been shown that model checking techniques can be applied to the veri cation of AgentSpeak systems, through a translation to promela, the model speci cation language for the SPIN LTL modelchecking system. ..."
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Cited by 13 (5 self)
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AgentSpeak is a reactive planning language for programming autonomous agents. It has recently been shown that model checking techniques can be applied to the veri cation of AgentSpeak systems, through a translation to promela, the model speci cation language for the SPIN LTL modelchecking system. In this paper, we introduce an alternative veri cation approach for AgentSpeak, by translating AgentSpeak to Java and then applying JPF2, a general purpose Java model checker. The primary advantage of this approach is that Java is the language of choice for most agent implementations, and the approach is thus much closer to the current practice of agent development than the promelabased approach. We examine both alternatives by means of a practical application, provide a qualitative comparison between them, and identify some key issues for future research.
Towards partial order reduction for model checking temporal epistemic logic
"... Abstract. We introduce basic partial order reduction techniques in a temporalepistemic setting. We analyse the semantics of interpreted systems with respect to the notions of traceequivalence for the epistemic linear time logic LTLK−X. 1 ..."
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Cited by 6 (6 self)
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Abstract. We introduce basic partial order reduction techniques in a temporalepistemic setting. We analyse the semantics of interpreted systems with respect to the notions of traceequivalence for the epistemic linear time logic LTLK−X. 1
A Tool for Specification and Verification of Epistemic Properties in Interpreted Systems
 In Proc. of the Int. Workshop on Logic and Communication in MultiAgent Systems (LCMAS’03), volume 85(2) of ENTCS
, 2003
"... We present a compiler that translates a multiagent systems specification given in the formalism of Interpreted Systems into an SMV program. We show how an SMV model checker can be coupled with a Kripke model editor (Akka) to allow for the mechanical verification of epistemic properties of multiage ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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We present a compiler that translates a multiagent systems specification given in the formalism of Interpreted Systems into an SMV program. We show how an SMV model checker can be coupled with a Kripke model editor (Akka) to allow for the mechanical verification of epistemic properties of multiagent systems. We apply this methodology to the verification of a communication protocol  the dining cryptographers.
The observationbased model for bdiagents
 In AAAI05
, 2005
"... We present a new computational model of BDIagents, called the observationbased BDImodel. The key point of this BDImodel is to express agents ’ beliefs, desires and intentions as a set of runs (computing paths), which is exactly a system in the interpreted system model, a wellknown agent model du ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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We present a new computational model of BDIagents, called the observationbased BDImodel. The key point of this BDImodel is to express agents ’ beliefs, desires and intentions as a set of runs (computing paths), which is exactly a system in the interpreted system model, a wellknown agent model due to Halpern and his colleagues. Our BDImodel is computationally grounded in that we are able to associate the BDIagent model with a computer program, and formulas, involving agents ’ beliefs, desires (goals) and intentions, can be understood as properties of program computations. We present a sound and complete proof system with respect to our BDImodel and explore how symbolic model checking techniques can be applied to model checking BDIagents. In order to make our BDImodel more flexible and practically realistic, we generalize it so that agents can have multiple sources of beliefs, multiple goals and intentions.
Model Checking for Multivalued Logic of Knowledge and Time
"... We present a multivalued µKcalculus, an expressive logic to specify knowledge and time in multiagent systems. We show that the general method of translation [22] from multivalued to twovalued De Morgan algebras can be extended to mv µKcalculus model checking. This way can we reduce the model che ..."
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We present a multivalued µKcalculus, an expressive logic to specify knowledge and time in multiagent systems. We show that the general method of translation [22] from multivalued to twovalued De Morgan algebras can be extended to mv µKcalculus model checking. This way can we reduce the model checking problem for mv µKcalculus to several instances of the model checking problem for twovalued µKcalculus. As a result, properties involving mv µKcalculus or its subsets, like mv CTLK or mv CTL ∗ K, can be verified using any of the available model checking algorithms. Three simple examples are shown to exemplify possible applications of multivalued logics of knowledge and time.
Model Checking Temporal Logics of Knowledge in Distributed Systems
"... Model checking is a promising approach to automatic verification, which has concentrated on specification expressed in temporal logic. Comparatively little attention has been given to temporal logics of knowledge, although such logics have been proven to be very useful in the specifications of proto ..."
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Model checking is a promising approach to automatic verification, which has concentrated on specification expressed in temporal logic. Comparatively little attention has been given to temporal logics of knowledge, although such logics have been proven to be very useful in the specifications of protocols for distributed systems. In this paper, we address ourselves to the model checking problem for a temporal logic of knowledge (Halpern and Vardi’s logic of CKLn). Based on the semantics of interpreted systems with local propositions, we develop an approach to symbolic CKLn model checking via OBDDs. In our approach to model checking specifications involving agents ’ knowledge, the knowledge modalities are eliminated via quantifiers over agents ’ nonobservable variables.
Automatic Verification of Knowledge and Time with
"... We show that the problem of model checking multidimensional modal logics can be reduced to the problem of model checking ARCTL, an extension of the temporal logic CTL with action labels and operators to reason about actions. In particular, we introduce a methodology for model checking a temporalep ..."
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We show that the problem of model checking multidimensional modal logics can be reduced to the problem of model checking ARCTL, an extension of the temporal logic CTL with action labels and operators to reason about actions. In particular, we introduce a methodology for model checking a temporalepistemic logic by building upon an extension of the model checker NuSMV that enables the verification of ARCTL. We briefly present the implementation and report experimental results for the verification of a typical security protocol involving temporalepistemic properties: the protocol of the dining cryptographers. 1