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Analysis of lexical signatures for improving information persistence on the World Wide Web
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION SYSTEMS
, 2004
"... A lexical signature (LS) consisting of several key words from a Web document is often sufficient information for finding the document later, even if its URL has changed. We conduct a largescale empirical study of nine methods for generating lexical signatures, including Phelps and Wilensky’s origin ..."
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A lexical signature (LS) consisting of several key words from a Web document is often sufficient information for finding the document later, even if its URL has changed. We conduct a largescale empirical study of nine methods for generating lexical signatures, including Phelps and Wilensky’s original proposal (PW), seven of our own static variations, and one new dynamic method. We examine their performance on the Web over a 10month period, and on a TREC data set, evaluating their ability to both (1) uniquely identify the original (possibly modified) document, and (2) locate other relevant documents if the original is lost. Lexical signatures chosen to minimize document frequency (DF) are good at unique identification but poor at finding relevant documents. PW works well on the relatively small TREC data set, but acts almost identically to DF on the Web, which contains billions of documents. Termfrequencybased lexical signatures (TF) are very easy to compute and often perform well, but are highly dependent on the ranking system of the search engine used. The termfrequency inversedocumentfrequency (TFIDF) based method and hybrid methods (which combine DF with TF or TFIDF) seem to be the most promising candidates among static methods for generating effective lexical signatures. We propose a dynamic LS generator
Slow axonal transport mechanisms move neurofilaments relentlessly in mouse optic axons
 J. Cell
, 1992
"... Abstract. Pulselabeling studies of slow axonal transport in many kinds of axons (spinal motor, sensory ganglion, oculomotor, hypoglossal, and olfactory) have led to the inference that axonal transport mechanisms move neurofilaments (NFs) unidirectionally as a single continuous kinetic population wi ..."
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Abstract. Pulselabeling studies of slow axonal transport in many kinds of axons (spinal motor, sensory ganglion, oculomotor, hypoglossal, and olfactory) have led to the inference that axonal transport mechanisms move neurofilaments (NFs) unidirectionally as a single continuous kinetic population with a diversity of individual transport rates. One study in mouse optic axons
Statistical Inference: Small Probabilities and Errors
"... the executor alleged that one of Howland’s signatures on a a will written in 1862 was a tracing of her signature from an earlier page of the will. Benjamin Peirce and his son Charles studied 42 of Sylvia Howland’s signatures, from which they estimated the probability that corresponding “downstrokes ..."
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the executor alleged that one of Howland’s signatures on a a will written in 1862 was a tracing of her signature from an earlier page of the will. Benjamin Peirce and his son Charles studied 42 of Sylvia Howland’s signatures, from which they estimated the probability that corresponding “downstrokes ” would agree in both length and position to be 5,325 25,830. Since her signature included 30 such “downstrokes, ” and the disputed signature agreed in all 30 cases with the undisputed signature, the elder Peirce concluded that the probability that the two signatures would agree in such a way if they had been written independently by Sylvia Howland herself was q = In his comments, Peirce noted: