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Hierarchical Bayesian Optimization Algorithm = Bayesian Optimization Algorithm + Niching + Local Structures
, 2001
"... The paper describes the hierarchical Bayesian optimization algorithm which combines the Bayesian optimization algorithm, local structures in Bayesian networks, and a powerful niching technique. The proposed algorithm is able to solve hierarchical traps and other difficult problems very efficiently. ..."
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Cited by 255 (63 self)
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The paper describes the hierarchical Bayesian optimization algorithm which combines the Bayesian optimization algorithm, local structures in Bayesian networks, and a powerful niching technique. The proposed algorithm is able to solve hierarchical traps and other difficult problems very efficiently.
Fitness Distance Correlation as a Measure of Problem Difficulty for Genetic Algorithms
 Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms
, 1995
"... A measure of search difficulty, fitness distance correlation (FDC), is introduced and examined in relation to genetic algorithm (GA) performance. In many cases, this correlation can be used to predict the performance of a GA on problems with known global maxima. It correctly classifies easy deceptiv ..."
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Cited by 204 (5 self)
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A measure of search difficulty, fitness distance correlation (FDC), is introduced and examined in relation to genetic algorithm (GA) performance. In many cases, this correlation can be used to predict the performance of a GA on problems with known global maxima. It correctly classifies easy deceptive problems as easy and difficult nondeceptive problems as difficult, indicates when Gray coding will prove better than binary coding, and is consistent with the surprises encountered when GAs were used on the Tanese and royal road functions. The FDC measure is a consequence of an investigation into the connection between GAs and heuristic search. 1 INTRODUCTION A correspondence between evolutionary algorithms and heuristic state space search is developed in (Jones, 1995b). This is based on a model of fitness landscapes as directed, labeled graphs that are closely related to the state spaces employed in heuristic search. We examine one aspect of this correspondence, the relationship between...
Niching Methods for Genetic Algorithms
, 1995
"... Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This ..."
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Cited by 191 (1 self)
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Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This study presents a comprehensive treatment of niching methods and the related topic of population diversity. Its purpose is to analyze existing niching methods and to design improved niching methods. To achieve this purpose, it first develops a general framework for the modelling of niching methods, and then applies this framework to construct models of individual niching methods, specifically crowding and sharing methods. Using a constructed model of crowding, this study determines why crowding methods over the last two decades have not made effective niching methods. A series of tests and design modifications results in the development of a highly effective form of crowding, called determin...
Rapid, Accurate Optimization of Difficult Problems Using Fast Messy Genetic Algorithms
 Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms
, 1993
"... Researchers have long sought genetic algorithms (GAs) that can solve difficult search, optimization, and machine learning problems quickly. Despite years of work on simple GAs and their variants it is still unknown how difficult a problem simple GAs can solve, how quickly they can solve it, and with ..."
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Cited by 100 (20 self)
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Researchers have long sought genetic algorithms (GAs) that can solve difficult search, optimization, and machine learning problems quickly. Despite years of work on simple GAs and their variants it is still unknown how difficult a problem simple GAs can solve, how quickly they can solve it, and with what reliability. More radical design departures than these have been taken, however, and the messy GA (mGA) approach has attempted to solve problems of bounded difficulty quickly and reliably by taking the notion of buildingblock linkage quite seriously. Early efforts were apparently successful in achieving polynomial convergence on some difficult problems, but the initialization bottleneck that required a large initial population was thought to be the primary obstacle to faster mGA performance. This paper replaces the partially enumerative initialization and selective primordial phase of the original messy GA with probabilistically complete initialization and a primordial phase that per...
Linkage Problem, Distribution Estimation, and Bayesian Networks
, 2000
"... This paper proposes an algorithm that uses an estimation of the joint distribution of promising solutions in order to generate new candidate solutions. The algorithm is settled into the context of genetic and evolutionary computation and the algorithms based on the estimation of distributions. Th ..."
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Cited by 88 (18 self)
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This paper proposes an algorithm that uses an estimation of the joint distribution of promising solutions in order to generate new candidate solutions. The algorithm is settled into the context of genetic and evolutionary computation and the algorithms based on the estimation of distributions. The proposed algorithm is called the Bayesian Optimization Algorithm (BOA). To estimate the distribution of promising solutions, the techniques for modeling multivariate data by Bayesian networks are used. TheBOA identifies, reproduces, and mixes building blocks up to a specified order. It is independent of the ordering of the variables in strings representing the solutions. Moreover, prior information about the problem can be incorporated into the algorithm, but it is not essential. First experiments were done with additively decomposable problems with both nonoverlapping as well as overlapping building blocks. The proposed algorithm is able to solve all but one of the tested problems in linear or close to linear time with respect to the problem size. Except for the maximal order of interactions to be covered, the algorithm does not use any prior knowledge about the problem. The BOA represents a step toward alleviating the problem of identifying and mixing building blocks correctly to obtain good solutions for problems with very limited domain information.
Escaping Hierarchical Traps with Competent Genetic Algorithms
 Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO2001
, 2001
"... To solve hierarchical problems, one must be able to learn the linkage, represent partial solutions efficiently, and assure effective niching. We propose the hierarchical ... ..."
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Cited by 85 (46 self)
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To solve hierarchical problems, one must be able to learn the linkage, represent partial solutions efficiently, and assure effective niching. We propose the hierarchical ...
Evaluationrelaxation schemes for genetic and evolutionary algorithms
, 2002
"... Genetic and evolutionary algorithms have been increasingly applied to solve complex, large scale search problems with mixed success. Competent genetic algorithms have been proposed to solve hard problems quickly, reliably and accurately. They have rendered problems that were difficult to solve by th ..."
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Cited by 60 (28 self)
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Genetic and evolutionary algorithms have been increasingly applied to solve complex, large scale search problems with mixed success. Competent genetic algorithms have been proposed to solve hard problems quickly, reliably and accurately. They have rendered problems that were difficult to solve by the earlier GAs to be solvable, requiring only a subquadratic number of function evaluations. To facilitate solving largescale complex problems, and to further enhance the performance of competent GAs, various efficiencyenhancement techniques have been developed. This study investigates one such class of efficiencyenhancement technique called evaluation relaxation. Evaluationrelaxation schemes replace a highcost, lowerror fitness function with a lowcost, higherror fitness function. The error in fitness functions comes in two flavors: Bias and variance. The presence of bias and variance in fitness functions is considered in isolation and strategies for increasing efficiency in both cases are developed. Specifically, approaches for choosing between two fitness functions with either differing variance or differing bias values have been developed. This thesis also investigates fitness inheritance as an evaluation
SEARCH, polynomial complexity, and the fast messy genetic algorithm
, 1995
"... Blackbox optimizationoptimization in presence of limited knowledge about the objective functionhas recently enjoyed a large increase in interest because of the demand from the practitioners. This has triggered a race for new high performance algorithms for solving large, difficult problems. Si ..."
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Cited by 50 (10 self)
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Blackbox optimizationoptimization in presence of limited knowledge about the objective functionhas recently enjoyed a large increase in interest because of the demand from the practitioners. This has triggered a race for new high performance algorithms for solving large, difficult problems. Simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, tabu search are some examples. Unfortunately, each of these algorithms is creating a separate field in itself and their use in practice is often guided by personal discretion rather than scientific reasons. The primary reason behind this confusing situation is the lack of any comprehensive understanding about blackbox search. This dissertation takes a step toward clearing some of the confusion. The main objectives of this dissertation are: 1. present SEARCH (Search Envisioned As Relation & Class Hierarchizing)an alternate perspective of blackbox optimization and its quantitative analysis that lays the foundation essential for transcending the limits of random enumerative search; 2. design and testing of the fast messy genetic algorithm. SEARCH is a general framework for understanding blackbox optimization in terms of relations,
Modeling BuildingBlock Interdependency
 In Parallel Problem Solving from Nature  PPSN V
, 1998
"... . The BuildingBlock Hypothesis appeals to the notion of problem decomposition and the assembly of solutions from subsolutions. Accordingly, there have been many varieties of GA test problems with a structure based on buildingblocks. Many of these problems use deceptive fitness functions to model i ..."
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Cited by 42 (10 self)
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. The BuildingBlock Hypothesis appeals to the notion of problem decomposition and the assembly of solutions from subsolutions. Accordingly, there have been many varieties of GA test problems with a structure based on buildingblocks. Many of these problems use deceptive fitness functions to model interdependency between the bits within a block. However, very few have any model of interdependency between buildingblocks; those that do are not consistent in the type of interaction used intrablock and interblock. This paper discusses the inadequacies of the various test problems in the literature and clarifies the concept of buildingblock interdependency. We formulate a principled model of hierarchical interdependency that can be applied through many levels in a consistent manner and introduce Hierarchical Ifandonlyif (HIFF) as a canonical example. We present some empirical results of GAs on HIFF showing that if population diversity is maintained and linkage is tight then the GA ...
Probabilistic Model Building and Competent Genetic Programming
 GENETIC PROGRAMMING THEORY AND PRACTISE, CHAPTER 13
, 2003
"... This paper describes a probabilistic model building genetic programming (PMBGP) developed based on the extended compact genetic algorithm (eCGA). Unlike traditional genetic programming, which use fixed recombination operators, the proposed PMBGA adapts linkages. The proposed algorithms... ..."
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Cited by 39 (10 self)
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This paper describes a probabilistic model building genetic programming (PMBGP) developed based on the extended compact genetic algorithm (eCGA). Unlike traditional genetic programming, which use fixed recombination operators, the proposed PMBGA adapts linkages. The proposed algorithms...