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24
Messagepassing for graphstructured linear programs: Proximal methods and rounding schemes
, 2008
"... The problem of computing a maximum a posteriori (MAP) configuration is a central computational challenge associated with Markov random fields. A line of work has focused on “treebased ” linear programming (LP) relaxations for the MAP problem. This paper develops a family of superlinearly convergen ..."
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Cited by 62 (0 self)
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The problem of computing a maximum a posteriori (MAP) configuration is a central computational challenge associated with Markov random fields. A line of work has focused on “treebased ” linear programming (LP) relaxations for the MAP problem. This paper develops a family of superlinearly convergent algorithms for solving these LPs, based on proximal minimization schemes using Bregman divergences. As with standard messagepassing on graphs, the algorithms are distributed and exploit the underlying graphical structure, and so scale well to large problems. Our algorithms have a doubleloop character, with the outer loop corresponding to the proximal sequence, and an inner loop of cyclic Bregman divergences used to compute each proximal update. Different choices of the Bregman divergence lead to conceptually related but distinct LPsolving algorithms. We establish convergence guarantees for our algorithms, and illustrate their performance via some simulations. We also develop two classes of graphstructured rounding schemes, randomized and deterministic, for obtaining integral configurations from the LP solutions. Our deterministic rounding schemes use a “reparameterization ” property of our algorithms so that when the LP solution is integral, the MAP solution can be obtained even before the LPsolver converges to the optimum. We also propose a graphstructured randomized rounding scheme that applies to iterative LP solving algorithms in general. We analyze the performance of our rounding schemes, giving bounds on the number of iterations required, when the LP is integral, for the rounding schemes to obtain the MAP solution. These bounds are expressed in terms of the strength of the potential functions, and the energy gap, which measures how well the integral MAP solution is separated from other integral configurations. We also report simulations comparing these rounding schemes. 1
NormProduct Belief Propagation: PrimalDual MessagePassing for Approximate Inference
, 2008
"... Inference problems in graphical models can be represented as a constrained optimization of a free energy function. In this paper we treat both forms of probabilistic inference, estimating marginal probabilities of the joint distribution and finding the most probable assignment, through a unified me ..."
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Cited by 53 (10 self)
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Inference problems in graphical models can be represented as a constrained optimization of a free energy function. In this paper we treat both forms of probabilistic inference, estimating marginal probabilities of the joint distribution and finding the most probable assignment, through a unified messagepassing algorithm architecture. In particular we generalize the Belief Propagation (BP) algorithms of sumproduct and maxproduct and treerewaighted (TRW) sum and max product algorithms (TRBP) and introduce a new set of convergent algorithms based on ”convexfreeenergy” and LinearProgramming (LP) relaxation as a zerotemprature of a convexfreeenergy. The main idea of this work arises from taking a general perspective on the existing BP and TRBP algorithms while observing that they all are reductions from the basic optimization formula of f + ∑ i hi
Convergent message passing algorithms  a unifying view
 In Proc. Twentyeighth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI ’09
, 2009
"... Messagepassing algorithms have emerged as powerful techniques for approximate inference in graphical models. When these algorithms converge, they can be shown to find local (or sometimes even global) optima of variational formulations to the inference problem. But many of the most popular algorithm ..."
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Cited by 42 (0 self)
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Messagepassing algorithms have emerged as powerful techniques for approximate inference in graphical models. When these algorithms converge, they can be shown to find local (or sometimes even global) optima of variational formulations to the inference problem. But many of the most popular algorithms are not guaranteed to converge. This has lead to recent interest in convergent messagepassing algorithms. In this paper, we present a unified view of convergent messagepassing algorithms. We algorithm, treeconsistency bound optimization (TCBO) that is provably convergent in both its sum and max product forms. We then show that many of the existing convergent algorithms are instances of our TCBO algorithm, and obtain novel convergent algorithms “for free ” by exchanging maximizations and summations in existing algorithms. In particular, we show that Wainwright’s nonconvergent sumproduct algorithm for tree based variational bounds, is actually convergent with the right update order for the case where trees are monotonic chains. 1
Energy Minimization for Linear Envelope MRFs
"... Markov random fields with higher order potentials have emerged as a powerful model for several problems in computer vision. In order to facilitate their use, we propose a new representation for higher order potentials as upper and lower envelopes of linear functions. Our representation concisely mod ..."
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Cited by 25 (7 self)
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Markov random fields with higher order potentials have emerged as a powerful model for several problems in computer vision. In order to facilitate their use, we propose a new representation for higher order potentials as upper and lower envelopes of linear functions. Our representation concisely models several commonly used higher order potentials, thereby providing a unified framework for minimizing the corresponding Gibbs energy functions. We exploit this framework by converting lower envelope potentials to standard pairwise functions with the addition of a small number of auxiliary variables. This allows us to minimize energy functions with lower envelope potentials using conventional algorithms such as BP, TRW and αexpansion. Furthermore, we show how the minimization of energy functions with upper envelope potentials leads to a difficult minmax problem. We address this difficulty by proposing a new message passing algorithm that solves a linear programming relaxation of the problem. Although this is primarily a theoretical paper, we demonstrate the efficacy of our approach on the binary (fg/bg) segmentation problem. 1.
MAP Estimation of SemiMetric MRFs via Hierarchical Graph Cuts
"... We consider the task of obtaining the maximum a posteriori estimate of discrete pairwise random fields with arbitrary unary potentials and semimetric pairwise potentials. For this problem, we propose an accurate hierarchical move making strategy where each move is computed efficiently by solving an ..."
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Cited by 16 (4 self)
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We consider the task of obtaining the maximum a posteriori estimate of discrete pairwise random fields with arbitrary unary potentials and semimetric pairwise potentials. For this problem, we propose an accurate hierarchical move making strategy where each move is computed efficiently by solving an stMINCUT problem. Unlike previous move making approaches, e.g. the widely used αexpansion algorithm, our method obtains the guarantees of the standard linear programming (LP) relaxation for the important special case of metric labeling. Unlike the existing LP relaxation solvers, e.g. interiorpoint algorithms or treereweighted message passing, our method is significantly faster as it uses only the efficient stMINCUT algorithm in its design. Using both synthetic and real data experiments, we show that our technique outperforms several commonly used algorithms. 1
Convexifying the bethe free energy
 in Conference on Uncertainty in Artifical Intelligence (UAI
, 2009
"... The introduction of loopy belief propagation (LBP) revitalized the application of graphical models in many domains. Many recent works present improvements on the basic LBP algorithm in an attempt to overcome convergence and local optima problems. Notable among these are convexified free energy appro ..."
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Cited by 15 (2 self)
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The introduction of loopy belief propagation (LBP) revitalized the application of graphical models in many domains. Many recent works present improvements on the basic LBP algorithm in an attempt to overcome convergence and local optima problems. Notable among these are convexified free energy approximations that lead to inference procedures with provable convergence and quality properties. However, empirically LBP still outperforms most of its convex variants in a variety of settings, as we also demonstrate here. Motivated by this fact we seek convexified free energies that directly approximate the Bethe free energy. We show that the proposed approximations compare favorably with stateofthe art convex free energy approximations. 1
Polynomial linear programming with gaussian belief propagation
 in the 46th Allerton Conf. on Communications, Control and Computing
, 2008
"... Abstract—Interiorpoint methods are stateoftheart algorithms for solving linear programming (LP) problems with polynomial complexity. Specifically, the Karmarkar algorithm typically solves LP problems in time O(n 3.5), where n is the number of unknown variables. Karmarkar’s celebrated algorithm i ..."
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Cited by 9 (5 self)
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Abstract—Interiorpoint methods are stateoftheart algorithms for solving linear programming (LP) problems with polynomial complexity. Specifically, the Karmarkar algorithm typically solves LP problems in time O(n 3.5), where n is the number of unknown variables. Karmarkar’s celebrated algorithm is known to be an instance of the logbarrier method using the Newton iteration. The main computational overhead of this method is in inverting the Hessian matrix of the Newton iteration. In this contribution, we propose the application of the Gaussian belief propagation (GaBP) algorithm as part of an efficient and distributed LP solver that exploits the sparse and symmetric structure of the Hessian matrix and avoids the need for direct matrix inversion. This approach shifts the computation from realm of linear algebra to that of probabilistic inference on graphical models, thus applying GaBP as an efficient inference engine. Our construction is general and can be used for any interiorpoint algorithm which uses the Newton method, including nonlinear program solvers. I.
Tightening fractional covering upper bounds on the partition function for highorder region graphs
 In Proceedings of the 28th conference on Uncertainty in artificial intelligence (UAI12
, 2012
"... In this paper we present a new approach for tightening upper bounds on the partition function. Our upper bounds are based on fractional covering bounds on the entropy function, and result in a concave program to compute these bounds and a convex program to tighten them. To solve these programs effec ..."
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Cited by 9 (4 self)
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In this paper we present a new approach for tightening upper bounds on the partition function. Our upper bounds are based on fractional covering bounds on the entropy function, and result in a concave program to compute these bounds and a convex program to tighten them. To solve these programs effectively for general region graphs we utilize the entropy barrier method, thus decomposing the original programs by their dual programs and solve them with dual block optimization scheme. The entropy barrier method provides an elegant framework to generalize the messagepassing scheme to highorder region graph, as well as to solve the block dual steps in closedform. This is a key for computational relevancy for large problems with thousands of regions. 1
Convergent Decomposition Solvers for Treereweighted Free Energies
"... We investigate minimization of treereweighted free energies for the purpose of obtaining approximate marginal probabilities and upper bounds on the partition function of cyclic graphical models. The solvers we present for this problem work by directly tightening treereweighted upper bounds. As a re ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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We investigate minimization of treereweighted free energies for the purpose of obtaining approximate marginal probabilities and upper bounds on the partition function of cyclic graphical models. The solvers we present for this problem work by directly tightening treereweighted upper bounds. As a result, they are particularly efficient for treereweighted energies arising from a small number of spanning trees. While this assumption may seem restrictive at first, we show how small sets of trees can be constructed in a principled manner. An appealing property of our algorithms, which results from the problem decomposition, is that they are embarrassingly parallel. In contrast to the original message passing algorithm introduced for this problem, we obtain global convergence guarantees. 1
Particlebased Variational Inference for Continuous Systems
"... Since the development of loopy belief propagation, there has been considerable work on advancing the state of the art for approximate inference over distributions defined on discrete random variables. Improvements include guarantees of convergence, approximations that are provably more accurate, and ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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Since the development of loopy belief propagation, there has been considerable work on advancing the state of the art for approximate inference over distributions defined on discrete random variables. Improvements include guarantees of convergence, approximations that are provably more accurate, and bounds on the results of exact inference. However, extending these methods to continuousvalued systems has lagged behind. While several methods have been developed to use belief propagation on systems with continuous values, recent advances for discrete variables have not as yet been incorporated. In this context we extend a recently proposed particlebased belief propagation algorithm to provide a general framework for adapting discrete messagepassing algorithms to inference in continuous systems. The resulting algorithms behave similarly to their purely discrete counterparts, extending the benefits of these more advanced inference techniques to the continuous domain. 1