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A Review of GameTree Pruning
, 2013
"... Chess programs have three major components: move generation, search, and evaluation. All components are important, although evaluation with its quiescence analysis is the part which makes each program’s play unique. The speed of a chess program is a function of its move generation cost, the complexi ..."
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Cited by 65 (4 self)
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Chess programs have three major components: move generation, search, and evaluation. All components are important, although evaluation with its quiescence analysis is the part which makes each program’s play unique. The speed of a chess program is a function of its move generation cost, the complexity of the position under study and the brevity of its evaluation. More important, however, is the quality of the mechanisms used to discontinue (prune) search of unprofitable continuations. The most reliable pruning method in popular use is the robust alphabeta algorithm, and its many supporting aids. These essential parts of gametree searching and pruning are reviewed here, and the performance of refinements, such as aspiration and principal variation search, and aids like transposition and history tables are compared.
APHID: Asynchronous Parallel GameTree Search
, 1999
"... Most parallel gametree search approaches use synchronous methods, where the work is concentrated within a specific part of the tree, or at a given search depth. This article shows that asynchronous gametree search algorithms can be as efficient as or better than synchronous methods in determini ..."
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Cited by 27 (2 self)
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Most parallel gametree search approaches use synchronous methods, where the work is concentrated within a specific part of the tree, or at a given search depth. This article shows that asynchronous gametree search algorithms can be as efficient as or better than synchronous methods in determining the minimax value. APHID, a new asynchronous parallel gametree search algorithm, is presented. APHID is implemented as a freelyavailable portable library, making the algorithm easy to integrate into a sequential gametree searching program. APHID has been added to four programs written by different authors. APHID yields better speedups than synchronous search methods for an Othello and a checkers program, and comparable speedups on two chess programs.
A Taxonomy Of Parallel GameTree Search Algorithms
, 1996
"... this paper. The taxonomy will be broken into two major categories: fffibased algorithms, and algorithms based on other search paradigms (SSS , ER, and theoretical methods). For the former category, a table is given to isolate the fundamental differences between the algorithms. The table is divided ..."
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Cited by 16 (3 self)
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this paper. The taxonomy will be broken into two major categories: fffibased algorithms, and algorithms based on other search paradigms (SSS , ER, and theoretical methods). For the former category, a table is given to isolate the fundamental differences between the algorithms. The table is divided into two parts: the first part contains characteristics of the fffibased algorithms, while the second part contains details about an implementation of each algorithm. Section 2 describes the various columns given in the table, and then gives some brief details on the algorithms contained therein. The algorithms based on other search paradigms are given in Section 3. Due to the varied nature of the methods, a brief description is given for each of the algorithms and no attempt has been made to categorize them to the same extent as the fffibased algorithms. The implementation details have not been organized into a table, since some of the algorithms given are of a theoretical nature and have not been implemented or simulated. The final section deals with some conclusions that can be drawn from the taxonomy. 2 fffiBASED PARALLEL GAMETREE SEARCH
Parallel Search for Combinatorial Optimization: Genetic Algorithms, Simulated Annealing, Tabu Search and GRASP
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON PARALLEL ALGORITHMS FOR IRREGULARLY STRUCTURED PROBLEMS, IRREGULAR'95
, 1995
"... In this paper, we review parallel search techniques for approximating the global optimal solution of combinatorial optimization problems. Recent developments on parallel implementation of genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, tabu search, and greedy randomized adaptive search procedures (GRASP) ..."
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Cited by 14 (2 self)
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In this paper, we review parallel search techniques for approximating the global optimal solution of combinatorial optimization problems. Recent developments on parallel implementation of genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, tabu search, and greedy randomized adaptive search procedures (GRASP) are discussed.
A Performance Analysis of TranspositionTableDriven Scheduling in Distributed Search
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
, 2002
"... This paper discusses a new workscheduling algorithm for parallel search of singleagent state spaces, called TranspositionTableDriven Work Scheduling, that places the transposition table at the heart of the parallel work scheduling. The scheme results in less synchronization overhead, less proce ..."
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Cited by 12 (7 self)
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This paper discusses a new workscheduling algorithm for parallel search of singleagent state spaces, called TranspositionTableDriven Work Scheduling, that places the transposition table at the heart of the parallel work scheduling. The scheme results in less synchronization overhead, less processor idle time, and less redundant search effort. Measurements on a 128processor parallel machine show that the scheme achieves closetolinear speedups; for large problems the speedups are even superlinear due to better memory usage. On the same machine, the algorithm is 1.6 to 12.9 times faster than traditional workstealingbased schemes.
Parallel Metaheuristics for Combinatorial Optimization
 INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL ON ADVANCED ALGORITHMIC TECHNIQUES FOR PARALLEL COMPUTATION WITH APPLICATIONS
, 1999
"... In this paper, we review parallel metaheuristics for approximating the global optimal solution of combinatorial optimization problems. Recent developments on parallel implementation of genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, tabu search, variable neighborhood search, and greedy randomized adapt ..."
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Cited by 11 (2 self)
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In this paper, we review parallel metaheuristics for approximating the global optimal solution of combinatorial optimization problems. Recent developments on parallel implementation of genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, tabu search, variable neighborhood search, and greedy randomized adaptive search procedures (GRASP) are discussed.
Transposition Table Driven Work Scheduling in Distributed Search
 IN 16TH NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AAAI'99
, 1999
"... This paper introduces a new scheduling algorithm for parallel singleagent search, transposition table driven work scheduling, that places the transposition table at the heart of the parallel work scheduling. The scheme results in less synchronization overhead, less processor idle time, and less ..."
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Cited by 11 (1 self)
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This paper introduces a new scheduling algorithm for parallel singleagent search, transposition table driven work scheduling, that places the transposition table at the heart of the parallel work scheduling. The scheme results in less synchronization overhead, less processor idle time, and less redundant search effort. Measurements on a 128processor parallel machine show that the scheme achieves nearlyoptimal performance and scales well. The algorithm performs a factor of 2.0 to 13.7 times better than traditional workstealingbased schemes.
Computer Chess And Search
 ARTICLE PREPARED FOR THE 2ND EDITION OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, S. SHAPIRO (EDITOR), TO BE PUBLISHED BY JOHN WILEY, 1992.
, 1991
"... ..."
Parallel Search of Narrow Game Trees
, 1993
"... One of the key determinants of a game playing program's strength is the depth of the game tree search. Therefore, researchers have turned to parallelism to search deeper trees in the same amount of real time. Tree decomposition algorithms extract parallelism by creating split nodes, where the s ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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One of the key determinants of a game playing program's strength is the depth of the game tree search. Therefore, researchers have turned to parallelism to search deeper trees in the same amount of real time. Tree decomposition algorithms extract parallelism by creating split nodes, where the subtrees rooted at the node are searched concurrently. If the game trees are narrow, then the degree of parallelism offered by the low branching factor may be insufficient to keep all the parallel processors busy, resulting in starvation and poor speedups. Chinook is a checkers (8 x 8 draughts) playing program developed at the University of Alberta. For the August 1992, Man Versus Machine World Draughts Championship match between Chinook and Dr.#Marion Tinsley, a parallel Chinook, or ParaChinook, was developed. This thesis describes the parallelization of Chinook's AlphaBeta search. The initial implementation of ParaChinook was based on the Principal Variation Splitting (PVSplit) algorithm, devel...