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Geometric Interconnection and Placement Algorithms
, 1995
"... This dissertation examines a number of geometric interconnection, partitioning, and placement problems arising in the field of VLSI physical design automation. In particular, many of the results concern the geometric Steiner tree problem: given a set of terminals in the plane, find a minimumlength ..."
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Cited by 12 (3 self)
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This dissertation examines a number of geometric interconnection, partitioning, and placement problems arising in the field of VLSI physical design automation. In particular, many of the results concern the geometric Steiner tree problem: given a set of terminals in the plane, find a minimumlength interconnection of those terminals according to some geometric distance metric. Two new algorithms are introduced that compute optimal rectilinear Steiner trees. Both are provably faster than any previous algorithm for instances small enough to solve in practice, and both are also fast in practice. The first algorithm is a dynamic programming algorithm based on decomposing a rectilinear Steiner tree into full trees. A full tree is a Steiner tree in which every terminal is a leaf. Its time complexity is O(n3^n), where n is the number of terminals. The second algorithm modifies the first by the use of fullset screening, which is a process by which some candidate full trees are eliminated f...
MINCE: A static global variableordering heuristic for sat search and bdd manipulation
 Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS
, 2004
"... Abstract: The increasing popularity of SAT and BDD techniques in formal hardware verification and automated synthesis of logic circuits encourages the search for additional speedups. Since typical SAT and BDD algorithms are exponential in the worstcase, the structure of realworld instances is a nat ..."
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Cited by 11 (1 self)
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Abstract: The increasing popularity of SAT and BDD techniques in formal hardware verification and automated synthesis of logic circuits encourages the search for additional speedups. Since typical SAT and BDD algorithms are exponential in the worstcase, the structure of realworld instances is a natural source of improvements. While SAT and BDD techniques are often presented as mutually exclusive alternatives, our work points out that both can be improved via the use of the same structural properties of instances. Our proposed methods are based on efficient problem partitioning and can be easily applied as preprocessing with arbitrary SAT solvers and BDD packages without modifying the source code of SAT/BDD tools. Finding a better variable ordering is a well recognized problem for both SAT solvers and BDD packages. Currently, the best variableordering algorithms are dynamic, in the sense that they are invoked many times in the course of the host algorithm that solves SAT or manipulates BDDs. Examples include the DLCS ordering for SAT solvers and variable sifting during BDD manipulations. In this work we propose a universal variableordering algorithm MINCE (MIN Cut Etc.) that preprocesses a given Boolean formula in CNF. MINCE is completely independent from target SAT algorithms and in some cases outperforms both the variable state independent
Temperature measurement and equilibrium dynamics of simulated annealing placements
 IEEE Trans. on CAD
, 1990
"... AbstractOne way to alleviate the heavy computation required by simulated annealing placement algorithms is to replace a significant fraction of the higher or middle temperatures with a faster heuristic, and then follow it with simulated annealing. A crucial issue in this approach is the determinat ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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AbstractOne way to alleviate the heavy computation required by simulated annealing placement algorithms is to replace a significant fraction of the higher or middle temperatures with a faster heuristic, and then follow it with simulated annealing. A crucial issue in this approach is the determination of the starting temperature for the simulated annealing phasea temperature should be chosen that causes an appropriate amount of optimization to he done, but makes good use of the structure provided by the heuristic. This paper presents a method for measuring the temperature of an existing placement. The approach is based on the measurement of the probability distribution of the change in cost function, P(AC), and makes the assumption that the placement is in simulated annealing equilibrium at some temperature. The temperature of placements produced both by a simulated annealing and a mincut placement algorithm are measured, and good agreement with known temperatures is obtained. The P ( A C) distribution
Characterization of Feasible Retimings
, 2001
"... We present a theorem which characterizes all feasible retimings for a stronglyconnected graph. For such graphs, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the achievability of a chosen target retiming. We describe an application which combines floorplanning and retiming which utilizes this cha ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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We present a theorem which characterizes all feasible retimings for a stronglyconnected graph. For such graphs, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the achievability of a chosen target retiming. We describe an application which combines floorplanning and retiming which utilizes this characterization. Experimental results show our techniques yield superior clock frequencies with a minor increase in wirelength.
Largescale circuit placement: Gap and promise
 in ICCAD ’03: Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE/ACM international conference on Computeraided design
"... Placement is one of the most important steps in the RTLtoGDSII synthesis process, as it directly defines the interconnects, which have become the bottleneck in circuit and system performance in deep submicron technologies. The placement problem has been studied extensively in the past 30 years. How ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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Placement is one of the most important steps in the RTLtoGDSII synthesis process, as it directly defines the interconnects, which have become the bottleneck in circuit and system performance in deep submicron technologies. The placement problem has been studied extensively in the past 30 years. However, recent studies show that existing placement solutions are surprisingly far from optimal. The first part of this tutorial summarizes results from recent optimality and scalability studies of existing placement tools. These studies show that the results of leading placement tools from both industry and academia may be up to 50 % to 150 % away from optimal in total wirelength. If such a gap can be closed, the corresponding performance improvement will be equivalent to several technologygeneration advancements. The second part of the tutorial highlights the recent progress on largescale circuit placement, including techniques for wirelength minimization, routability optimization, and performance optimization.
Relaxed Partitioning Balance Constraints in TopDown Placement
 in ASIC’98
"... Recent work of Simon and Teng [17] observes that the recursive bisection (i.e., bipartitioning with equal partition target areas, and minimum possible allowed deviation from targets) heuristic for k way minimumcut graph partitioning can have unbounded error, but that relaxing the balance constra ..."
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Recent work of Simon and Teng [17] observes that the recursive bisection (i.e., bipartitioning with equal partition target areas, and minimum possible allowed deviation from targets) heuristic for k way minimumcut graph partitioning can have unbounded error, but that relaxing the balance constraints in each call to the bipartitioning engine can result in kway net cuts within a small (O(logk)) factor of optimal. Motivated by this result, we experimentally determine whether relaxing the traditional exact bisection constraint in a topdown partitioningbased placement tool can improve the resulting cutsizes, and hence total wirelength, of the placement solution. We find that this simple change reduces total wirelength by up to several percent, with no change in placement uniformity and under 10% runtime penalty. Finally, we observe that the stability (predictability) of the placement process appears unimpaired by this modification: both wirelength stability, and stability of Rent par...
Discrete mathematics in manufacturing
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE OF THE 2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS
, 1991
"... ..."
New theoretical results on quadratic placement
 in Integration – a VLSI Journal Jens Vygen ICCAD 2002 Placement Tutorial 120
"... Current tools for VLSI placement are based either on quadratic placement, or on mincut heuristics, or on simulated annealing. For the most complex chips with millions of movable objects, algorithms based on quadratic placement seem to yield the best results within reasonable time. In this paper we ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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Current tools for VLSI placement are based either on quadratic placement, or on mincut heuristics, or on simulated annealing. For the most complex chips with millions of movable objects, algorithms based on quadratic placement seem to yield the best results within reasonable time. In this paper we prove several new theoretical results on quadratic placement. We point out connections to random walks and electrical networks. Moreover, we argue that quadratic placement has, in contrast to the other approaches, some welldefined stability properties. Finally, we consider the question how to choose the weights of the clique edges representing a multiterminal net optimally.
PARALLEL ALGORITHMS FOR PLACEMENT AND ROUTING IN VLSI DESIGN
, 1991
"... The computational requirements for high quality synthesis, analysis, and verification of VLSI designs have rapidly increased with the fast growing complexity of these designs. Research in the past has focused on the development of heuristic algorithms, special purpose hardware accelerators, or paral ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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The computational requirements for high quality synthesis, analysis, and verification of VLSI designs have rapidly increased with the fast growing complexity of these designs. Research in the past has focused on the development of heuristic algorithms, special purpose hardware accelerators, or parallel algorithms for the numerous design tasks to decrease the tirn,e required for solution. In this thesis, we propose two new parallel algorithms for two VLSI synthesis tasks, standard cell placement and global routing. The first algorithm, a parallel algorithm for global routing, uses hierarchical techniques to decompose the routing problem into independent routing subproblems that are solved in parallel. Results are then presented which compare the routing quality to the results of other published global routers and which evaluate the speedups attained. The second algorithm, a parallel algorithm for cell placement and global routing, hierarchically integrates a quadrisection placement algorithrr{, a bisection placement algorithm, and the previous global routing algorithm. Unique partitioning techniques are used to decompose the various stages of the algorithm into independent tasks which can be evaluated in parallel. Finally, we present results which evaluate the various algorithm alternatives and compare the algorithm performance to other placement programs, and we present measurements on the parallel speedups available.
Potential NRG: Placement with Incomplete Data
 Proc. ACM/IEEE DAC
, 1998
"... Traditional placement problems are studied under a fully speci ed cell library and a complete netlist. However, in the rst, e.g., 2 years of a 23 year microprocessor design cycle, the detailed netlist is unavailable. For area and performance estimation, layout must nevertheless be done with incompl ..."
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Traditional placement problems are studied under a fully speci ed cell library and a complete netlist. However, in the rst, e.g., 2 years of a 23 year microprocessor design cycle, the detailed netlist is unavailable. For area and performance estimation, layout must nevertheless be done with incomplete information. Another source of incompleteness comes from reuse of instances from earlier design generations; these instances and their parameters will change as the project evolves. The problem of placement with incomplete data (PID) can be abstracted as having to place a circuit when pc % of the cells and pn% of the nets are missing. The key challenge in PID is how to add missing cells and nets. In this paper, two \patchingmethods " for adding missing nets and cells are proposed. The methods are called abstraction and fusion. Experimental results are very interesting and illurstrative. First, they show that PID is a di cult problem and an arbitrary (and perhaps intuitively sound) method may not produce highquality results. Experiments verify that the abstraction method is a very good predictor and that fusion is not because circuits produced by abstraction attain much of the properties of the origianl circuits. Summary Table 3 in Section 4 shows that when a circuit has 10 % incompleteness, abstraction can predict the nal total wirelength with an error of 5.8%, while fusion has a 67.8 % error in predicting the wirelength in the same circuit. 1