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64
Pedestrian Detection for Driving Assistance Systems: Singleframe Classification and System Level Performance
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF IEEE INTELLIGENT VEHICLES SYMPOSIUM
, 2004
"... We describe the functional and architectural breakdown of a monocular pedestrian detection system. We describe in detail our approach for singleframe classification based on a novel scheme of breaking down the class variability by repeatedly training a set of relatively simple classifiers on cluste ..."
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Cited by 125 (2 self)
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We describe the functional and architectural breakdown of a monocular pedestrian detection system. We describe in detail our approach for singleframe classification based on a novel scheme of breaking down the class variability by repeatedly training a set of relatively simple classifiers on clusters of the training set. Singleframe classification performance results and system level performance figures for daytime conditions are presented with a discussion about the remaining gap to meet a daytime normal weather condition production system.
On Photometric Issues in 3D Visual Recognition From A Single 2D Image
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1997
"... . We describe the problem of recognition under changing illumination conditions and changing viewing positions from a computational and human vision perspective. On the computational side we focus on the mathematical problems of creating an equivalence class for images of the same 3D object undergo ..."
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Cited by 123 (6 self)
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. We describe the problem of recognition under changing illumination conditions and changing viewing positions from a computational and human vision perspective. On the computational side we focus on the mathematical problems of creating an equivalence class for images of the same 3D object undergoing certain groups of transformations  mostly those due to changing illumination, and briefly discuss those due to changing viewing positions. The computational treatment culminates in proposing a simple scheme for recognizing, via alignment, an image of a familiar object taken from a novel viewing position and a novel illumination condition. On the human vision aspect, the paper is motivated by empirical evidence inspired by Mooney images of faces that suggest a relatively high level of visual processing is involved in compensating for photometric sources of variability, and furthermore, that certain limitations on the admissible representations of image information may exist. The psycho...
Lens Distortion Calibration Using Point Correspondences
 In Proc. CVPR
, 1996
"... This paper describes a new method for lens distortion calibration using only point correspondences in multiple views, without the need to know either the 3D location of the points or the camera locations. The standard lens distortion model is a model of the deviations of a real camera from the ideal ..."
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Cited by 80 (3 self)
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This paper describes a new method for lens distortion calibration using only point correspondences in multiple views, without the need to know either the 3D location of the points or the camera locations. The standard lens distortion model is a model of the deviations of a real camera from the ideal pinhole or projective camera model. Given multiple views of a set of corresponding points taken by ideal pinhole cameras there exist epipolar and trilinear constraints among pairs and triplets of these views. In practice, due to noise in the feature detection and due to lens distortion these constraints do not hold exactly and we get some error. The calibration is a search for the lens distortion parameters that minimize this error. Using simulation and experimental results with real images we explore the properties of this method. We describe the use of this method with the standard lens distortion model, radial and decentering, but it could also be used with any other parametric distortio...
Modelbased Brightness Constraints: on Direct Estimation of Structure and Motion
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1997
"... We describe a new direct method for estimating structure and motion from image intensities of multiple views. We extend the direct methods of [9] to three views. Adding the third view enables us to solve for motion, and compute a dense depth map of the scene, directly from image spatiotemporal deriv ..."
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Cited by 43 (0 self)
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We describe a new direct method for estimating structure and motion from image intensities of multiple views. We extend the direct methods of [9] to three views. Adding the third view enables us to solve for motion, and compute a dense depth map of the scene, directly from image spatiotemporal derivatives in a linear manner without first having to find point correspondences or compute optical flow. We describe the advantages and limitations of this method which are then verified with experiments using real images. 1. Introduction We present a new method for computing egomotion and dense structure from three views. This method can be viewed as an extension of the 'direct methods' of Horn & Weldon [9] from two views (one motion) to three views (two motions). These methods are dubbed 'direct methods' because they do not require prior computation of optical flow. Within a coarsetofine implementation our method can handle displacements averaging up to 50 pixels for 640\Theta 480 resolut...
Integral invariants for shape matching
 PAMI
, 2006
"... Abstract—For shapes represented as closed planar contours, we introduce a class of functionals which are invariant with respect to the Euclidean group and which are obtained by performing integral operations. While such integral invariants enjoy some of the desirable properties of their differential ..."
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Cited by 42 (2 self)
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Abstract—For shapes represented as closed planar contours, we introduce a class of functionals which are invariant with respect to the Euclidean group and which are obtained by performing integral operations. While such integral invariants enjoy some of the desirable properties of their differential counterparts, such as locality of computation (which allows matching under occlusions) and uniqueness of representation (asymptotically), they do not exhibit the noise sensitivity associated with differential quantities and, therefore, do not require presmoothing of the input shape. Our formulation allows the analysis of shapes at multiple scales. Based on integral invariants, we define a notion of distance between shapes. The proposed distance measure can be computed efficiently and allows warping the shape boundaries onto each other; its computation results in optimal point correspondence as an intermediate step. Numerical results on shape matching demonstrate that this framework can match shapes despite the deformation of subparts, missing parts and noise. As a quantitative analysis, we report matching scores for shape retrieval from a database. Index Terms—Integral invariants, shape, shape matching, shape distance, shape retrieval. Ç 1
Trilinear Tensor: The Fundamental Construct of Multipleview Geometry and its Applications
 INT. WORSKSHOP ON AFPAC
, 1997
"... The topic of representation, recovery and manipulation of threedimensional (3D) scenes from twodimensional (2D) images thereof, provides a fertile ground for both intellectual theoretically inclined questions related to the algebra and geometry of the problem and to practical applications such ..."
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Cited by 42 (8 self)
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The topic of representation, recovery and manipulation of threedimensional (3D) scenes from twodimensional (2D) images thereof, provides a fertile ground for both intellectual theoretically inclined questions related to the algebra and geometry of the problem and to practical applications such as Visual Recognition, Animation and View Synthesis, recovery of scene structure and camera egomotion, object detection and tracking, multisensor alignment, etc. The basic materials have been known since the turn of the century, but the full scope of the problem has been under intensive study since 1992, first on the algebra of two views and then on the algebra of multiple views leading to a relatively mature understanding of what is known as "multilinear matching constraints", and the "trilinear tensor" of three or more views. The purpose of this paper is, first and foremost, to provide a coherent framework for expressing the ideas behind the analysis of multiple views. Seco...
Threading Fundamental Matrices
 IEEE Trans. on PAMI
, 1998
"... We present a new function that operates on Fundamental matrices across a sequence of views. The operation, we call "threading", connects two consecutive Fundamental matrices using the Trilinear tensor as the connecting thread. The threading operation guarantees that consecutive camera matr ..."
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Cited by 41 (2 self)
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We present a new function that operates on Fundamental matrices across a sequence of views. The operation, we call "threading", connects two consecutive Fundamental matrices using the Trilinear tensor as the connecting thread. The threading operation guarantees that consecutive camera matrices are consistent with a unique 3D model, without ever recovering a 3D model. Applications include recovery of camera egomotion from a sequence of views, image stabilization (plane stabilization) across a sequence, and multiview imagebased rendering. 1 Introduction Consider the problem of recovering the (uncalibrated) camera trajectory from an extended sequence of images. Since the introduction of multilinear forms across three or more views (see Appendix) there have been several attempts to put together a coherent algebraic framework that would produce a sequence of camera matrices that are consistent with the same 3D (projective) world [25, 4, 23]. The consistency requirement arises from the...
Global Matching Criterion and Color Segmentation Based Stereo
 in Proc. Workshop on the Application of Computer Vision (WACV2000
, 2000
"... In this paper, we present a new analysis by synthesis computational framework for stereo vision. It is designed to achieve the following goals: (1) enforcing global visibility constraints, (2) obtaining reliable depth for depth boundaries and thin structures, (3) obtaining correct depth for texturel ..."
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Cited by 38 (4 self)
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In this paper, we present a new analysis by synthesis computational framework for stereo vision. It is designed to achieve the following goals: (1) enforcing global visibility constraints, (2) obtaining reliable depth for depth boundaries and thin structures, (3) obtaining correct depth for textureless regions, and (4) hypothesizing correct depth for unmatched regions. The framework employs depth and visibility based rendering within a global matching criterion to compute depth in contrast with approaches that rely on local matching measures and relaxation. A color segmentation based depth representation guarantees smoothness in textureless regions. Hypothesizing depth from neighboring segments enables propagation of correct depth and produces reasonable depth values for unmatched region. A practical algorithm that integrates all these aspects is presented in this paper. Comparative experimental results are shown for real images. Results on new view rendering based on a single stereo p...
Estimating the jacobian of the singular value decomposition: Theory and applications
 In Proc. European Conf. on Computer Vision, ECCV’00
, 2000
"... Abstract. The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of a matrix is a linear algebra tool that has been successfully applied to a wide variety of domains. The present paper is concerned with the problem of estimating the Jacobian of the SVD components of a matrix with respect to the matrix itself. An ex ..."
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Cited by 35 (1 self)
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Abstract. The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of a matrix is a linear algebra tool that has been successfully applied to a wide variety of domains. The present paper is concerned with the problem of estimating the Jacobian of the SVD components of a matrix with respect to the matrix itself. An exact analytic technique is developed that facilitates the estimation of the Jacobian using calculations based on simple linear algebra. Knowledge of the Jacobian of the SVD is very useful in certain applications involving multivariate regression or the computation of the uncertainty related to estimates obtained through the SVD. The usefulness and generality of the proposed technique is demonstrated by applying it to the estimation of the uncertainty for three different vision problems, namely selfcalibration, epipole computation and rigid motion estimation. 1
Parallax geometry of smooth surfaces in multiple views
 in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Comput. Vis., Corfu
, 1999
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