Results 1  10
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16
The complexity of computing a Nash equilibrium
, 2006
"... We resolve the question of the complexity of Nash equilibrium by showing that the problem of computing a Nash equilibrium in a game with 4 or more players is complete for the complexity class PPAD. Our proof uses ideas from the recentlyestablished equivalence between polynomialtime solvability of n ..."
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Cited by 227 (14 self)
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We resolve the question of the complexity of Nash equilibrium by showing that the problem of computing a Nash equilibrium in a game with 4 or more players is complete for the complexity class PPAD. Our proof uses ideas from the recentlyestablished equivalence between polynomialtime solvability of normalform games and graphical games, and shows that these kinds of games can implement arbitrary members of a PPADcomplete class of Brouwer functions. 1
Computing Equilibria in MultiPlayer Games
 In Proceedings of the Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA
, 2004
"... We initiate the systematic study of algorithmic issues involved in finding equilibria (Nash and correlated) in games with a large number of players; such games, in order to be computationally meaningful, must be presented in some succinct, gamespecific way. We develop a general framework for obta ..."
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Cited by 53 (3 self)
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We initiate the systematic study of algorithmic issues involved in finding equilibria (Nash and correlated) in games with a large number of players; such games, in order to be computationally meaningful, must be presented in some succinct, gamespecific way. We develop a general framework for obtaining polynomialtime algorithms for optimizing over correlated equilibria in such settings, and show how it can be applied successfully to symmetric games (for which we actually find an exact polytopal characterization), graphical games, and congestion games, among others. We also present complexity results implying that such algorithms are not possible in certain other such games. Finally, we present a polynomialtime algorithm, based on quantifier elimination, for finding a Nash equilibrium in symmetric games when the number of strategies is relatively small.
Settling the Complexity of Computing TwoPlayer Nash Equilibria
"... We prove that Bimatrix, the problem of finding a Nash equilibrium in a twoplayer game, is complete for the complexity class PPAD (Polynomial Parity Argument, Directed version) introduced by Papadimitriou in 1991. Our result, building upon the work of Daskalakis, Goldberg, and Papadimitriou on the c ..."
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Cited by 46 (3 self)
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We prove that Bimatrix, the problem of finding a Nash equilibrium in a twoplayer game, is complete for the complexity class PPAD (Polynomial Parity Argument, Directed version) introduced by Papadimitriou in 1991. Our result, building upon the work of Daskalakis, Goldberg, and Papadimitriou on the complexity of fourplayer Nash equilibria [21], settles a long standing open problem in algorithmic game theory. It also serves as a starting point for a series of results concerning the complexity of twoplayer Nash equilibria. In particular, we prove the following theorems: • Bimatrix does not have a fully polynomialtime approximation scheme unless every problem in PPAD is solvable in polynomial time. • The smoothed complexity of the classic LemkeHowson algorithm and, in fact, of any algorithm for Bimatrix is not polynomial unless every problem in PPAD is solvable in randomized polynomial time. Our results also have a complexity implication in mathematical economics: • ArrowDebreu market equilibria are PPADhard to compute.
On the Complexity of Nash Equilibria and Other Fixed Points (Extended Abstract)
 IN PROC. FOCS
, 2007
"... We reexamine what it means to compute Nash equilibria and, more generally, what it means to compute a fixed point of a given Brouwer function, and we investigate the complexity of the associated problems. Specifically, we study the complexity of the following problem: given a finite game, Γ, with 3 ..."
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Cited by 39 (4 self)
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We reexamine what it means to compute Nash equilibria and, more generally, what it means to compute a fixed point of a given Brouwer function, and we investigate the complexity of the associated problems. Specifically, we study the complexity of the following problem: given a finite game, Γ, with 3 or more players, and given ɛ> 0, compute an approximation within ɛ of some (actual) Nash equilibrium. We show that approximation of an actual Nash Equilibrium, even to within any nontrivial constant additive factor ɛ < 1/2 in just one desired coordinate, is at least as hard as the long standing squareroot sum problem, as well as a more general arithmetic circuit decision problem that characterizes Ptime in a unitcost model of computation with arbitrary precision rational arithmetic; thus placing the approximation problem in P, or even NP, would resolve major open problems in the complexity of numerical computation. We show similar results for market equilibria: it is hard to estimate with any nontrivial accuracy the equilibrium prices in an exchange economy with a unique equilibrium, where the economy is given by explicit algebraic formulas for the excess demand functions. We define a class, FIXP, which captures search problems that can be cast as fixed point
Reducibility Among Equilibrium Problems
 ELECTRONIC COLLOQUIUM ON COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY
, 2005
"... We address the fundamental question of whether the Nash equilibria of a game can be computed in polynomial time. We describe certain efficient reductions between this problem for normal form games with a fixed number of players and graphical games with fixed degree. Our main result is that the probl ..."
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Cited by 39 (1 self)
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We address the fundamental question of whether the Nash equilibria of a game can be computed in polynomial time. We describe certain efficient reductions between this problem for normal form games with a fixed number of players and graphical games with fixed degree. Our main result is that the problem of solving a game for any constant number of players, is reducible to solving a 4player game.
Algorithmic Rationality: Game Theory with Costly Computation
, 2007
"... We develop a general gametheoretic framework for reasoning about strategic agents performing possibly costly computation. In this framework, many traditional gametheoretic results (such as the existence of a Nash equilibrium) no longer hold. Nevertheless, we can use the framework to provide psycho ..."
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Cited by 9 (7 self)
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We develop a general gametheoretic framework for reasoning about strategic agents performing possibly costly computation. In this framework, many traditional gametheoretic results (such as the existence of a Nash equilibrium) no longer hold. Nevertheless, we can use the framework to provide psychologically appealing explanations to observed behavior in wellstudied games (such as finitely repeated prisoner’s dilemma and rockpaperscissors). Furthermore, we Consider the following game. You are given a random odd nbit number x and you are supposed to decide whether x is prime or composite. If you guess correctly you receive $2, if you guess incorrectly you instead have to pay a penalty of $1000. Additionally you have the choice of “playing safe” by giving up, in which case you receive $1. In traditional game theory, computation is considered
Computing Correlated Equilibria
 in Multiplayer Games,” Proceedings of STOC
, 2005
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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The npcompleteness column: Finding needles in haystacks
 ACM Transactions on Algorithms
, 2007
"... Abstract. This is the 26th edition of a column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that which M. R. Garey and I used in our book “Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness, ” W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, 1979, h ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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Abstract. This is the 26th edition of a column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that which M. R. Garey and I used in our book “Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness, ” W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, 1979, hereinafter referred to as “[G&J]. ” Previous columns, the first 23 of which appeared in J. Algorithms, will be referred to by a combination of their sequence number and year of appearance, e.g., “Column 1 [1981]. ” Full bibliographic details on the previous columns, as well as downloadable unofficial versions of them, can be found at
Computing good Nash equilibria in graphical games
 In Proc 8th Conf Electronic Commerce (EC’07
, 2007
"... Abstract. This paper addresses the problem of fair equilibrium selection in graphical games. Our approach is based on the data structure called the best response policy, which was proposed by Kearns et al. [12] as a way to represent all Nash equilibria of a graphical game. In [9], it was shown that ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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Abstract. This paper addresses the problem of fair equilibrium selection in graphical games. Our approach is based on the data structure called the best response policy, which was proposed by Kearns et al. [12] as a way to represent all Nash equilibria of a graphical game. In [9], it was shown that the best response policy has polynomial size as long as the underlying graph is a path. In this paper, we show that if the underlying graph is a boundeddegree tree and the best response policy has polynomial size then there is an efficient algorithm which constructs a Nash equilibrium that guarantees certain payoffs to all participants. Another attractive solution concept is a Nash equilibrium that maximizes the social welfare. We show that, while exactly computing the latter is infeasible (we prove that solving this problem may involve algebraic numbers of an arbitrarily high degree), there exists an FPTAS for finding such an equilibrium as long as the best response policy has polynomial size. These two algorithms can be combined to produce Nash equilibria that satisfy various fairness criteria. 1