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On Evolution, Search, Optimization, Genetic Algorithms and Martial Arts  Towards Memetic Algorithms
, 1989
"... Short abstract, isn't it? P.A.C.S. numbers 05.20, 02.50, 87.10 1 Introduction Large Numbers "...the optimal tour displayed (see Figure 6) is the possible unique tour having one arc fixed from among 10 655 tours that are possible among 318 points and have one arc fixed. Assuming that one could ..."
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Cited by 186 (10 self)
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Short abstract, isn't it? P.A.C.S. numbers 05.20, 02.50, 87.10 1 Introduction Large Numbers "...the optimal tour displayed (see Figure 6) is the possible unique tour having one arc fixed from among 10 655 tours that are possible among 318 points and have one arc fixed. Assuming that one could possibly enumerate 10 9 tours per second on a computer it would thus take roughly 10 639 years of computing to establish the optimality of this tour by exhaustive enumeration." This quote shows the real difficulty of a combinatorial optimization problem. The huge number of configurations is the primary difficulty when dealing with one of these problems. The quote belongs to M.W Padberg and M. Grotschel, Chap. 9., "Polyhedral computations", from the book The Traveling Salesman Problem: A Guided tour of Combinatorial Optimization [124]. It is interesting to compare the number of configurations of realworld problems in combinatorial optimization with those large numbers arising in Cosmol...
Very LargeScale Neighborhood Search for the Quadratic Assignment Problem
 DISCRETE APPLIED MATHEMATICS
, 2002
"... The Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) consists of assigning n facilities to n locations so as to minimize the total weighted cost of interactions between facilities. The QAP arises in many diverse settings, is known to be NPhard, and can be solved to optimality only for fairly small size instances ..."
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Cited by 108 (11 self)
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The Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) consists of assigning n facilities to n locations so as to minimize the total weighted cost of interactions between facilities. The QAP arises in many diverse settings, is known to be NPhard, and can be solved to optimality only for fairly small size instances (typically, n < 25). Neighborhood search algorithms are the most popular heuristic algorithms to solve larger size instances of the QAP. The most extensively used neighborhood structure for the QAP is the 2exchange neighborhood. This neighborhood is obtained by swapping the locations of two facilities and thus has size O(n²). Previous efforts to explore larger size neighborhoods (such as 3exchange or 4exchange neighborhoods) were not very successful, as it took too long to evaluate the larger set of neighbors. In this paper, we propose very largescale neighborhood (VLSN) search algorithms where the size of the neighborhood is very large and we propose a novel search procedure to heuristically enumerate good neighbors. Our search procedure relies on the concept of improvement graph which allows us to evaluate neighbors much faster than the existing methods. We present extensive computational results of our algorithms on standard benchmark instances. These investigations reveal that very largescale neighborhood search algorithms give consistently better solutions compared the popular 2exchange neighborhood algorithms considering both the solution time and solution accuracy.
The Quadratic Assignment Problem: A Survey and Recent Developments
 In Proceedings of the DIMACS Workshop on Quadratic Assignment Problems, volume 16 of DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1994
"... . Quadratic Assignment Problems model many applications in diverse areas such as operations research, parallel and distributed computing, and combinatorial data analysis. In this paper we survey some of the most important techniques, applications, and methods regarding the quadratic assignment probl ..."
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Cited by 91 (16 self)
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. Quadratic Assignment Problems model many applications in diverse areas such as operations research, parallel and distributed computing, and combinatorial data analysis. In this paper we survey some of the most important techniques, applications, and methods regarding the quadratic assignment problem. We focus our attention on recent developments. 1. Introduction Given a set N = f1; 2; : : : ; ng and n \Theta n matrices F = (f ij ) and D = (d kl ), the quadratic assignment problem (QAP) can be stated as follows: min p2\Pi N n X i=1 n X j=1 f ij d p(i)p(j) + n X i=1 c ip(i) ; where \Pi N is the set of all permutations of N . One of the major applications of the QAP is in location theory where the matrix F = (f ij ) is the flow matrix, i.e. f ij is the flow of materials from facility i to facility j, and D = (d kl ) is the distance matrix, i.e. d kl represents the distance from location k to location l [62, 67, 137]. The cost of simultaneously assigning facility i to locat...
Memetic Algorithms for Combinatorial Optimization Problems: Fitness Landscapes and Effective Search Strategies
, 2001
"... ..."
Fitness Landscapes, Memetic Algorithms, and Greedy Operators for Graph Bipartitioning
 Evolutionary Computation
, 2000
"... The fitness landscape of the graph bipartitioning problem is investigated by performing a search space analysis for several types of graphs. The analysis shows that the structure of the search space is significantly different for the types of instances studied. Moreover, with increasing epistasis ..."
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Cited by 48 (13 self)
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The fitness landscape of the graph bipartitioning problem is investigated by performing a search space analysis for several types of graphs. The analysis shows that the structure of the search space is significantly different for the types of instances studied. Moreover, with increasing epistasis, the amount of gene interactions in the representation of a solution in an evolutionary algorithm, the number of local minima for one type of instance decreases and, thus, the search becomes easier. We suggest that other characteristics besides high epistasis might have greater influence on the hardness of a problem. To understand these characteristics, the notion of a dependency graph describing gene interactions is introduced.
A Greedy Genetic Algorithm for the Quadratic Assignment Problem
 Computers and Operations Research
, 1997
"... The Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) is one of the classical combinatorial optimization problems and is known for its diverse applications. In this paper, we suggest a genetic algorithm for the QAP and report its computational behavior. The genetic algorithm incorporates many greedy principles in ..."
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Cited by 43 (2 self)
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The Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) is one of the classical combinatorial optimization problems and is known for its diverse applications. In this paper, we suggest a genetic algorithm for the QAP and report its computational behavior. The genetic algorithm incorporates many greedy principles in its design and, hence, is called the greedy genetic algorithm. The ideas we incorporate in the greedy genetic algorithm include (i) generating the initial population using a randomized construction heuristic; (ii) new crossover schemes; (iii) a special purpose immigration scheme that promotes diversity; (iv) periodic local optimization of a subset of the population; (v) tournamenting among different populations; and (vi) an overall design that attempts to strike a balance between diversity and a bias towards fitter individuals. We test our algorithm on all the benchmark instances of QAPLIB, a wellknown library of QAP instances. Out of the 132 total instances in QAPLIB of varied sizes, the g...
Improving the scalability of data center networks with trafficaware virtual machine placement
 in Proc. of INFOCOM’10
, 2010
"... Abstract—The scalability of modern data centers has become a practical concern and has attracted significant attention in recent years. In contrast to existing solutions that require changes in the network architecture and the routing protocols, this paper proposes using trafficaware virtual machin ..."
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Cited by 36 (1 self)
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Abstract—The scalability of modern data centers has become a practical concern and has attracted significant attention in recent years. In contrast to existing solutions that require changes in the network architecture and the routing protocols, this paper proposes using trafficaware virtual machine (VM) placement to improve the network scalability. By optimizing the placement of VMs on host machines, traffic patterns among VMs can be better aligned with the communication distance between them, e.g. VMs with large mutual bandwidth usage are assigned to host machines in close proximity. We formulate the VM placement as an optimization problem and prove its hardness. We design a twotier approximate algorithm that efficiently solves the VM placement problem for very large problem sizes. Given the significant difference in the traffic patterns seen in current data centers and the structural differences of the recently proposed data center architectures, we further conduct a comparative analysis on the impact of the traffic patterns and the network architectures on the potential performance gain of trafficaware VM placement. We use traffic traces collected from production data centers to evaluate our proposed VM placement algorithm, and we show a significant performance improvement compared to existing generic methods that do not take advantage of traffic patterns and data center network characteristics. I.
A Comparison of Memetic Algorithms, Tabu Search, and Ant Colonies for the Quadratic Assignment Problem
 Proc. Congress on Evolutionary Computation, IEEE
, 1999
"... A memetic algorithm (MA), i.e. an evolutionary algorithm making use of local search, for the quadratic assignment problem is presented. A new recombination operator for realizing the approach is described, and the behavior of the MA is investigated on a set of problem instances containing between 25 ..."
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Cited by 32 (4 self)
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A memetic algorithm (MA), i.e. an evolutionary algorithm making use of local search, for the quadratic assignment problem is presented. A new recombination operator for realizing the approach is described, and the behavior of the MA is investigated on a set of problem instances containing between 25 and 100 facilities/locations. The results indicate that the proposed MA is able to produce high quality solutions quickly. A comparison of the MA with some of the currently best alternative approaches  reactive tabu search, robust tabu search and the fast ant colony system  demonstrates that the MA outperforms its competitors on all studied problem instances of practical interest. 1 Introduction The problem of assigning a set of facilities (with given flows between them) to a set of locations (with given distances between them) in such a way that the sum of the product between flows and distances is minimized is known as the facilities location problem [1] or the quadratic assignment ...
Adaptive Penalty Methods For Genetic Optimization Of Constrained Combinatorial Problems
 INFORMS Journal on Computing
, 1996
"... The application of genetic algorithms (GA) to constrained optimization problems has been hindered by the inefficiencies of reproduction and mutation when feasibility of generated solutions is impossible to guarantee and feasible solutions are very difficult to find. Although several authors have ..."
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Cited by 26 (12 self)
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The application of genetic algorithms (GA) to constrained optimization problems has been hindered by the inefficiencies of reproduction and mutation when feasibility of generated solutions is impossible to guarantee and feasible solutions are very difficult to find. Although several authors have suggested the use of both static and dynamic penalty functions for genetic search, this paper presents a general adaptive penalty technique which makes use of feedback obtained during the search along with a dynamic distance metric. The effectiveness of this method is illustrated on two diverse combinatorial applications; (1) the unequalarea, shapeconstrained facility layout problem and (2) the seriesparallel redundancy allocation problem to maximize system reliability given cost and weight constraints. The adaptive penalty function is shown to be robust with regard to random number seed, parameter settings, number and degree of constraints, and problem instance. 1. Introduction ...
Solving Large Quadratic Assignment Problems in Parallel.
 Computational Optimization and Applications
, 1994
"... . Quadratic Assignment problems are in practice among the most difficult to solve in the class of NPcomplete problems. The only successful approach hitherto has been BranchandBound based algorithms, but such algorithms are crucially dependent on good bound functions to limit the size of the space ..."
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Cited by 24 (6 self)
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. Quadratic Assignment problems are in practice among the most difficult to solve in the class of NPcomplete problems. The only successful approach hitherto has been BranchandBound based algorithms, but such algorithms are crucially dependent on good bound functions to limit the size of the space searched. Much work has been done to identify such functions for the QAP, but with limited success. Parallel processing has also been used in order to increase the size of problems solvable to optimality. The systems used have, however, often been systems with relatively few, but very powerful vector processors, and have hence not been ideally suited for computations essentially involving nonvectorizable computations on integers. In this paper we investigate the combination of one of the best bound functions for a Branchand Bound algorithm (the GilmoreLawler bound) and various testing, variable binding and recalculation of bounds between branchings when used in a parallel BranchandBo...