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Universally composable security: A new paradigm for cryptographic protocols
, 2013
"... We present a general framework for representing cryptographic protocols and analyzing their security. The framework allows specifying the security requirements of practically any cryptographic task in a unified and systematic way. Furthermore, in this framework the security of protocols is preserved ..."
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Cited by 834 (42 self)
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We present a general framework for representing cryptographic protocols and analyzing their security. The framework allows specifying the security requirements of practically any cryptographic task in a unified and systematic way. Furthermore, in this framework the security of protocols is preserved under a general protocol composition operation, called universal composition. The proposed framework with its securitypreserving composition operation allows for modular design and analysis of complex cryptographic protocols from relatively simple building blocks. Moreover, within this framework, protocols are guaranteed to maintain their security in any context, even in the presence of an unbounded number of arbitrary protocol instances that run concurrently in an adversarially controlled manner. This is a useful guarantee, that allows arguing about the security of cryptographic protocols in complex and unpredictable environments such as modern communication networks.
On the (im)possibility of obfuscating programs
 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2001
"... Informally, an obfuscator O is an (efficient, probabilistic) “compiler ” that takes as input a program (or circuit) P and produces a new program O(P) that has the same functionality as P yet is “unintelligible ” in some sense. Obfuscators, if they exist, would have a wide variety of cryptographic an ..."
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Cited by 332 (21 self)
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Informally, an obfuscator O is an (efficient, probabilistic) “compiler ” that takes as input a program (or circuit) P and produces a new program O(P) that has the same functionality as P yet is “unintelligible ” in some sense. Obfuscators, if they exist, would have a wide variety of cryptographic and complexitytheoretic applications, ranging from software protection to homomorphic encryption to complexitytheoretic analogues of Rice’s theorem. Most of these applications are based on an interpretation of the “unintelligibility ” condition in obfuscation as meaning that O(P) is a “virtual black box, ” in the sense that anything one can efficiently compute given O(P), one could also efficiently compute given oracle access to P. In this work, we initiate a theoretical investigation of obfuscation. Our main result is that, even under very weak formalizations of the above intuition, obfuscation is impossible. We prove this by constructing a family of efficient programs P that are unobfuscatable in the sense that (a) given any efficient program P ′ that computes the same function as a program P ∈ P, the “source code ” P can be efficiently reconstructed, yet (b) given oracle access to a (randomly selected) program P ∈ P, no efficient algorithm can reconstruct P (or even distinguish a certain bit in the code from random) except with negligible probability. We extend our impossibility result in a number of ways, including even obfuscators that (a) are not necessarily computable in polynomial time, (b) only approximately preserve the functionality, and (c) only need to work for very restricted models of computation (TC 0). We also rule out several potential applications of obfuscators, by constructing “unobfuscatable” signature schemes, encryption schemes, and pseudorandom function families.
Security and Privacy Aspects of LowCost Radio Frequency Identification Systems
, 2003
"... Like many technologies, lowcost Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems will become pervasive in our daily lives when affixed to everyday consumer items as "smart labels". While yielding great productivity gains, RFID systems may create new threats to the security and privacy of ..."
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Cited by 290 (5 self)
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Like many technologies, lowcost Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems will become pervasive in our daily lives when affixed to everyday consumer items as "smart labels". While yielding great productivity gains, RFID systems may create new threats to the security and privacy of individuals or organizations. This paper presents a brief description of RFID systems and their operation. We describe privacy and security risks and how they apply to the unique setting of lowcost RFID devices. We propose several security mechanisms and suggest areas for future research.
Our Data, Ourselves: Privacy via Distributed Noise Generation
 In EUROCRYPT
, 2006
"... Abstract. In this work we provide efficient distributed protocols for generating shares of random noise, secure against malicious participants. The purpose of the noise generation is to create a distributed implementation of the privacypreserving statistical databases described in recent papers [14 ..."
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Cited by 142 (14 self)
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Abstract. In this work we provide efficient distributed protocols for generating shares of random noise, secure against malicious participants. The purpose of the noise generation is to create a distributed implementation of the privacypreserving statistical databases described in recent papers [14,4,13]. In these databases, privacy is obtained by perturbing the true answer to a database query by the addition of a small amount of Gaussian or exponentially distributed random noise. The computational power of evenasimple form of these databases, when the queryis just of the form È i f(di), that is, the sum over all rows i in the database of a function f applied to the data in row i, has been demonstrated in [4]. A distributed implementation eliminates the need for a trusted database administrator. The results for noise generation are of independent interest. The generation of Gaussian noise introduces a technique for distributing shares of many unbiased coins with fewer executions of verifiable secret sharing than would be needed using previous approaches (reduced by afactorofn). The generation of exponentially distributed noise uses two shallow circuits: one for generating many arbitrarily but identically biased coins at an amortized cost of two unbiased random bits apiece, independent of the bias, and the other to combine bits of appropriate biases to obtain an exponential distribution. 1
Universally Composable Notions of Key Exchange and Secure Channels
, 2002
"... Abstract. Recently, Canetti and Krawczyk (Eurocrypt’2001) formulated a notion of security for keyexchange (ke) protocols, called SKsecurity, and showed that this notion suffices for constructing secure channels. However, their model and proofs do not suffice for proving more general composability p ..."
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Cited by 126 (11 self)
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Abstract. Recently, Canetti and Krawczyk (Eurocrypt’2001) formulated a notion of security for keyexchange (ke) protocols, called SKsecurity, and showed that this notion suffices for constructing secure channels. However, their model and proofs do not suffice for proving more general composability properties of SKsecure ke protocols. We show that while the notion of SKsecurity is strictly weaker than a fullyidealized notion of key exchange security, it is sufficiently robust for providing secure composition with arbitrary protocols. In particular, SKsecurity guarantees the security of the key for any application that desires to setup secret keys between pairs of parties. We also provide new definitions of securechannels protocols with similarly strong composability properties, and show that SKsecurity suffices for obtaining these definitions. To obtain these results we use the recently proposed framework of “universally composable (UC) security. ” We also use a new tool, called “noninformation oracles, ” which will probably find applications beyond the present case. These tools allow us to bridge between seemingly limited indistinguishabilitybased definitions such as SKsecurity and more powerful, simulationbased definitions, such as UC security, where general composition theorems can be proven. Furthermore, based on such composition theorems we reduce the analysis of a fullfledged multisession keyexchange protocol to the (simpler) analysis of individual, standalone, keyexchange sessions.
Rational Secret Sharing and Multiparty Computation (Extended Abstract)
, 2004
"... Joseph Halpern Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 halpern@cs.cornell.edu Vanessa Teague Stanford University Stanford, CA 943059025 vteague@cs.stanford.edu ABSTRACT We consider the problems of secret sharing and multiparty computation, assuming that agents prefer to get the secret (res ..."
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Cited by 106 (9 self)
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Joseph Halpern Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 halpern@cs.cornell.edu Vanessa Teague Stanford University Stanford, CA 943059025 vteague@cs.stanford.edu ABSTRACT We consider the problems of secret sharing and multiparty computation, assuming that agents prefer to get the secret (resp., function value) to not getting it, and secondarily, prefer that as few as possible of the other agents get it. We show that, under these assumptions, neither secret sharing nor multiparty function computation is possible using a mechanism that has a fixed running time. However, we show that both are possible using randomized mechanisms with constant expected running time.
Random projectionbased multiplicative data perturbation for privacy preserving distributed data mining
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING
, 2006
"... This paper explores the possibility of using multiplicative random projection matrices for privacy preserving distributed data mining. It specifically considers the problem of computing statistical aggregates like the inner product matrix, correlation coefficient matrix, and Euclidean distance matri ..."
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Cited by 87 (6 self)
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This paper explores the possibility of using multiplicative random projection matrices for privacy preserving distributed data mining. It specifically considers the problem of computing statistical aggregates like the inner product matrix, correlation coefficient matrix, and Euclidean distance matrix from distributed privacy sensitive data possibly owned by multiple parties. This class of problems is directly related to many other datamining problems such as clustering, principal component analysis, and classification. This paper makes primary contributions on two different grounds. First, it explores Independent Component Analysis as a possible tool for breaching privacy in deterministic multiplicative perturbationbased models such as random orthogonal transformation and random rotation. Then, it proposes an approximate random projectionbased technique to improve the level of privacy protection while still preserving certain statistical characteristics of the data. The paper presents extensive theoretical analysis and experimental results. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique is effective and can be successfully used for different types of privacypreserving data mining applications.
Building Castles out of Mud: Practical Access Pattern Privacy and Correctness on Untrusted Storage
"... We introduce a new practical mechanism for remote data storage with efficient access pattern privacy and correctness. A storage client can deploy this mechanism to issue encrypted reads, writes, and inserts to a potentially curious and malicious storage service provider, without revealing informatio ..."
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Cited by 80 (4 self)
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We introduce a new practical mechanism for remote data storage with efficient access pattern privacy and correctness. A storage client can deploy this mechanism to issue encrypted reads, writes, and inserts to a potentially curious and malicious storage service provider, without revealing information or access patterns. The provider is unable to establish any correlation between successive accesses, or even to distinguish between a read and a write. Moreover, the client is provided with strong correctness assurances for its operations – illicit provider behavior does not go undetected. We built a first practical system – orders of magnitude faster than existing implementations – that can execute over several queries per second on 1Tbyte+ databases with full computational privacy and correctness. Categories andSubject Descriptors H.3.4 [Information Storage and Retrieval]: Systems
Another Look at “Provable Security"
, 2004
"... We give an informal analysis and critique of several typical “provable security” results. In some cases there are intuitive but convincing arguments for rejecting the conclusions suggested by the formal terminology and “proofs,” whereas in other cases the formalism seems to be consistent with common ..."
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Cited by 72 (13 self)
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We give an informal analysis and critique of several typical “provable security” results. In some cases there are intuitive but convincing arguments for rejecting the conclusions suggested by the formal terminology and “proofs,” whereas in other cases the formalism seems to be consistent with common sense. We discuss the reasons why the search for mathematically convincing theoretical evidence to support the security of publickey systems has been an important theme of researchers. But we argue that the theoremproof paradigm of theoretical mathematics is often of limited relevance here and frequently leads to papers that are confusing and misleading. Because our paper is aimed at the general mathematical public, it is selfcontained and as jargonfree as possible.