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Recursion Theory on the Reals and Continuoustime Computation
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1995
"... We define a class of recursive functions on the reals analogous to the classical recursive functions on the natural numbers, corresponding to a conceptual analog computer that operates in continuous time. This class turns out to be surprisingly large, and includes many functions which are uncomp ..."
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Cited by 80 (4 self)
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We define a class of recursive functions on the reals analogous to the classical recursive functions on the natural numbers, corresponding to a conceptual analog computer that operates in continuous time. This class turns out to be surprisingly large, and includes many functions which are uncomputable in the traditional sense.
Iteration, Inequalities, and Differentiability in Analog Computers
, 1999
"... Shannon's General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) is an elegant model of analog computation in continuous time. In this paper, we consider whether the set G of GPACcomputable functions is closed under iteration, that is, whether for any function f(x) 2 G there is a function F (x; t) 2 G s ..."
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Cited by 34 (16 self)
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Shannon's General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) is an elegant model of analog computation in continuous time. In this paper, we consider whether the set G of GPACcomputable functions is closed under iteration, that is, whether for any function f(x) 2 G there is a function F (x; t) 2 G such that F (x; t) = f t (x) for nonnegative integers t. We show that G is not closed under iteration, but a simple extension of it is. In particular, if we relax the definition of the GPAC slightly to include unique solutions to boundary value problems, or equivalently if we allow functions x k (x) that sense inequalities in a dierentiable way, the resulting class, which we call G + k , is closed under iteration. Furthermore, G + k includes all primitive recursive functions, and has the additional closure property that if T (x) is in G+k , then any function of x computable by a Turing machine in T (x) time is also.
A Survey of ContinuousTime Computation Theory
 Advances in Algorithms, Languages, and Complexity
, 1997
"... Motivated partly by the resurgence of neural computation research, and partly by advances in device technology, there has been a recent increase of interest in analog, continuoustime computation. However, while specialcase algorithms and devices are being developed, relatively little work exists o ..."
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Cited by 30 (6 self)
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Motivated partly by the resurgence of neural computation research, and partly by advances in device technology, there has been a recent increase of interest in analog, continuoustime computation. However, while specialcase algorithms and devices are being developed, relatively little work exists on the general theory of continuoustime models of computation. In this paper, we survey the existing models and results in this area, and point to some of the open research questions. 1 Introduction After a long period of oblivion, interest in analog computation is again on the rise. The immediate cause for this new wave of activity is surely the success of the neural networks "revolution", which has provided hardware designers with several new numerically based, computationally interesting models that are structurally sufficiently simple to be implemented directly in silicon. (For designs and actual implementations of neural models in VLSI, see e.g. [30, 45]). However, the more fundamental...
Real recursive functions and their hierarchy
, 2004
"... ... onsidered, first as a model of analog computation, and second to obtain analog characterizations of classical computational complexity classes (Unconventional Models of Computation, UMC 2002, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2509, Springer, Berlin, pp. 1–14). However, one of the operators ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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... onsidered, first as a model of analog computation, and second to obtain analog characterizations of classical computational complexity classes (Unconventional Models of Computation, UMC 2002, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2509, Springer, Berlin, pp. 1–14). However, one of the operators introduced in the seminal paper by Moore (1996), the minimalization operator, has not been considered: (a) although differential recursion (the analog counterpart of classical recurrence) is, in some extent, directly implementable in the General Purpose Analog Computer of Claude Shannon, analog minimalization is far from physical realizability, and (b) analog minimalization was borrowed from classical recursion theory and does not fit well the analytic realm of analog computation. In this paper, we show that a most natural operator captured from analysis—the operator of taking a limit—can be used properly to enhance the theory of recursion over the reals, providing good solutions to puzzling problems raised by the original model.
Some recent developments on Shannon’s general purpose analog computer
 Mathematical Logic Quarterly
"... This paper revisits one of the first models of analog computation, the General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC). In particular, we restrict our attention to the improved model presented in [11] and we show that it can be further refined. With this we prove the following: (i) the previous model can be ..."
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Cited by 20 (7 self)
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This paper revisits one of the first models of analog computation, the General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC). In particular, we restrict our attention to the improved model presented in [11] and we show that it can be further refined. With this we prove the following: (i) the previous model can be simplified; (ii) it admits extensions having close connections with the class of smooth continuous time dynamical systems. As a consequence, we conclude that some of these extensions achieve Turing universality. Finally, it is shown that if we introduce a new notion of computability for the GPAC, based on ideas from computable analysis, then one can compute transcendentally transcendental functions such as the Gamma function or Riemann’s Zeta function. 1
Grounding Analog Computers
 Think
, 1993
"... Although analog computation was eclipsed by digital computation in the second half of the twentieth century, it is returning as an important alternative computing technology. Indeed, as explained in this report, theoretical results imply that analog computation can escape from the limitations of dig ..."
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Cited by 13 (7 self)
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Although analog computation was eclipsed by digital computation in the second half of the twentieth century, it is returning as an important alternative computing technology. Indeed, as explained in this report, theoretical results imply that analog computation can escape from the limitations of digital computation. Furthermore, analog computation has emerged as an important theoretical framework for discussing computation in the brain and other natural systems. The report (1) summarizes the fundamentals of analog computing, starting with the continuous state space and the various processes by which analog computation can be organized in time; (2) discusses analog computation in nature, which provides models and inspiration for many contemporary uses of analog computation, such as neural networks; (3) considers generalpurpose analog computing, both from a theoretical perspective and in terms of practical generalpurpose analog computers; (4) discusses the theoretical power of
The Broad Conception Of Computation
 American Behavioral Scientist
, 1997
"... A myth has arisen concerning Turing's paper of 1936, namely that Turing set forth a fundamental principle concerning the limits of what can be computed by machine  a myth that has passed into cognitive science and the philosophy of mind, to wide and pernicious effect. This supposed principle, ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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A myth has arisen concerning Turing's paper of 1936, namely that Turing set forth a fundamental principle concerning the limits of what can be computed by machine  a myth that has passed into cognitive science and the philosophy of mind, to wide and pernicious effect. This supposed principle, sometimes incorrectly termed the 'ChurchTuring thesis', is the claim that the class of functions that can be computed by machines is identical to the class of functions that can be computed by Turing machines. In point of fact Turing himself nowhere endorses, nor even states, this claim (nor does Church). I describe a number of notional machines, both analogue and digital, that can compute more than a universal Turing machine. These machines are exemplars of the class of nonclassical computing machines. Nothing known at present rules out the possibility that machines in this class will one day be built, nor that the brain itself is such a machine. These theoretical considerations undercut a numb...
What lies beyond the mountains? Computational systems beyond the Turing limit
 BULLETIN OF THE EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION FOR THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2005
"... Up to Turing power, all computations are describable by suitable programs, which correspond to the prescription by finite means of some rational parameters of the system or some computable reals. ¿From Turing power up we have computations that are not describable by finite means: computation without ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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Up to Turing power, all computations are describable by suitable programs, which correspond to the prescription by finite means of some rational parameters of the system or some computable reals. ¿From Turing power up we have computations that are not describable by finite means: computation without a program. When we observe natural phenomena and endow them with computational significance, it is not the algorithm we are observing but the process. Some objects near us may be performing hypercomputation: we observe them, but we will never be able to simulate their behaviour on a computer. What is then the profit of such a theory of computation to Science?
Abstract Analog computation beyond the Turing limit
"... The main purpose of this paper is quite uncontroversial. First, we recall some models of analog computations (including these allowed to perform Turing uncomputable tasks). Second, we support the suggestions that such hypercomputable capabilities of such systems can be explained by the use of infini ..."
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The main purpose of this paper is quite uncontroversial. First, we recall some models of analog computations (including these allowed to perform Turing uncomputable tasks). Second, we support the suggestions that such hypercomputable capabilities of such systems can be explained by the use of infinite limits. Additionally, the inner restrictions of analog models of computations are indicated.
A Review of Field Computation
, 2007
"... This report reviews the basic principles of field computation, a model of massively parallel analog computation, and discusses its applications in natural and artificial intelligence. We begin with the mathematical foundations and notation for field computation; Hilbert spaces provide the basic math ..."
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This report reviews the basic principles of field computation, a model of massively parallel analog computation, and discusses its applications in natural and artificial intelligence. We begin with the mathematical foundations and notation for field computation; Hilbert spaces provide the basic mathematical framework. Next we discuss examples of field computation in the brain, especially in its computational maps. Fields appear in a number of contexts, including activity at the axon hillocks, in patterns of axonal connection between areas, and in patterns of synaptic connection to dendrites. The following section presents examples of field computation in the brain and in other natural and artificial systems, including fields for sensorimotor processing, excitable media, and diffusion processes. Next we consider special topics in field computation in cognition, including the separation of information (semantics) from pragmatics, and the analysis of discrete symbols as field excitations. We also consider the relevance of universal mutivariate approximation theorems to generalpurpose