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Niching Methods for Genetic Algorithms
, 1995
"... Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This ..."
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Cited by 208 (1 self)
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Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This study presents a comprehensive treatment of niching methods and the related topic of population diversity. Its purpose is to analyze existing niching methods and to design improved niching methods. To achieve this purpose, it first develops a general framework for the modelling of niching methods, and then applies this framework to construct models of individual niching methods, specifically crowding and sharing methods. Using a constructed model of crowding, this study determines why crowding methods over the last two decades have not made effective niching methods. A series of tests and design modifications results in the development of a highly effective form of crowding, called determin...
Genetic Local Search for the TSP: New Results
 In Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation
, 1997
"... The combination of local search heuristics and genetic algorithms has been shown to be an effective approach for finding nearoptimum solutions to the traveling salesman problem. In this paper, previously proposed genetic local search algorithms for the symmetric and asymmetric traveling salesman pr ..."
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Cited by 79 (13 self)
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The combination of local search heuristics and genetic algorithms has been shown to be an effective approach for finding nearoptimum solutions to the traveling salesman problem. In this paper, previously proposed genetic local search algorithms for the symmetric and asymmetric traveling salesman problem are revisited and potential improvements are identified. Since local search is the central component in which most of the computation time is spent, improving the efficiency of the local search operators is crucial for improving the overall performance of the algorithms. The modifications of the algorithms are described and the new results obtained are presented. The results indicate that the improved algorithms are able to arrive at better solutions in significantly less time. I. Introduction Consider a salesman who wants to start from his home city, visit each of a set of n cities exactly once, and then return home. Since the salesman is interested in finding the shortest possible r...
A Genetic Local Search Algorithm for Solving Symmetric and Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problems
 In Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation
, 1996
"... The combination of local search heuristics and genetic algorithms is a promising approach for finding nearoptimum solutions to the traveling salesman problem (TSP). In this paper, an approach is presented in which local search techniques are used to find local optima in a given TSP search space, and ..."
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Cited by 79 (12 self)
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The combination of local search heuristics and genetic algorithms is a promising approach for finding nearoptimum solutions to the traveling salesman problem (TSP). In this paper, an approach is presented in which local search techniques are used to find local optima in a given TSP search space, and genetic algorithms are used to search the space of local optima in order to find the global optimum. New genetic operators for realizing the proposed approach are described, and the quality and efficiency of the solutions obtained for a set of symmetric and asymmetric TSP instances are discussed. The results indicate that it is possible to arrive at high quality solutions in reasonable time. I. Introduction In the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) [18], [27], a number of cities with distances between them is given and the task is to find the minimumlength closed tour that visits each city once and returns to its starting point. A symmetric TSP (STSP) is one where the distance between any...
Genetic Algorithms for the Travelling Salesman Problem: A Review of Representations and Operators
 Artificial Intelligence Review
, 1999
"... This paper is the result of a literature study carried out by the authors. It is a review of the dierent attempts made to solve the Travelling Salesman Problem with Genetic Algorithms. We present crossover and mutation operators, developed to tackle the Travelling Salesman Problem with Genetic Alg ..."
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Cited by 67 (2 self)
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This paper is the result of a literature study carried out by the authors. It is a review of the dierent attempts made to solve the Travelling Salesman Problem with Genetic Algorithms. We present crossover and mutation operators, developed to tackle the Travelling Salesman Problem with Genetic Algorithms with dierent representations such as: binary representation, path representation, adjacency representation, ordinal representation and matrix representation. Likewise, we show the experimental results obtained with dierent standard examples using combination of crossover and mutation operators in relation with path representation. Keywords: Travelling Salesman Problem; Genetic Algorithms; Binary representation; Path representation; Adjacency representation; Ordinal representation; Matrix representation; Hybridation. 1 1 Introduction In nature, there exist many processes which seek a stable state. These processes can be seen as natural optimization processes. Over the last...
New Genetic Local Search Operators for the Traveling Salesman Problem
, 1996
"... Abstract. In this paper, an approach is presented to incorporate problem speci c knowledge into a genetic algorithm which is used to compute nearoptimum solutions to traveling salesman problems (TSP). The approach is based on using a tour construction heuristic for generating the initial population ..."
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Cited by 56 (11 self)
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Abstract. In this paper, an approach is presented to incorporate problem speci c knowledge into a genetic algorithm which is used to compute nearoptimum solutions to traveling salesman problems (TSP). The approach is based on using a tour construction heuristic for generating the initial population, a tour improvement heuristic for nding local optima in a given TSP search space, and new genetic operators for e ectively searching the space of local optima in order to nd the global optimum. The quality and e ciency of solutions obtained for a set of TSP instances containing between 318 and 1400 cities are presented. 1
Memetic Algorithms for Combinatorial Optimization Problems: Fitness Landscapes and Effective Search Strategies
, 2001
"... ..."
Hybrid Genetic Algorithms for Binpacking and Related Problems
 Annals of Operations Research
, 1993
"... The genetic algorithm (GA) paradigm has attracted considerable attention as a promising heuristic approach for solving optimization problems. Much of the development has related to problems of optimizing functions of continuous variables, but recently there have been several applications to problems ..."
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Cited by 32 (0 self)
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The genetic algorithm (GA) paradigm has attracted considerable attention as a promising heuristic approach for solving optimization problems. Much of the development has related to problems of optimizing functions of continuous variables, but recently there have been several applications to problems of a combinatorial nature. What is often found is that GAs have fairly poor performance for combinatorial problems if implemented in a naive way, and most reported work has involved somewhat ad hoc adjustments to the basic method. In this paper, we will describe a general approach which promises good performance for a fairly extensive class of problems by hybridizing the GA with existing simple heuristics. The procedure will be illustrated mainly in relation to the problem of binpacking , but it could be extended to other problems such as graphpartitioning, parallelmachine scheduling and generalized assignment. The method is further extended by using problem size reduction hybrids. So...
Heuristic methods for vehicle routing problem with time windows
, 2000
"... This paper documents our investigation into various heuristic methods to solve the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) to near optimal solutions. The objective of the VRPTW is to serve a number of customers within predefined time windows at minimum cost (in terms of distance travelled) ..."
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Cited by 28 (0 self)
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This paper documents our investigation into various heuristic methods to solve the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) to near optimal solutions. The objective of the VRPTW is to serve a number of customers within predefined time windows at minimum cost (in terms of distance travelled), without violating the capacity and total trip time constraints for each vehicle. Combinatorial optimisation problems of this kind are nonpolynomialhard (NPhard) and are best solved by heuristics. The heuristics we are exploring here are mainly thirdgeneration artificial intelligent (AI) algorithms, namely simulated annealing (SA), Tabu search (TS) and genetic algorithm (GA). Based on the original SA theory proposed by Kirkpatrick and the work by Thangiah, we update the cooling scheme and develop a fast and efficient SA heuristic. One of the variants of Glover's TS, strict Tabu, is evaluated and first used for VRPTW, with the help of both recency and frequency measures. Our GA implementation, unlike Thangiah's genetic sectoring heuristic, uses intuitive integer string representation and incorporates several new crossover operations and other advanced techniques such as hybrid hillclimbing and adaptive mutation scheme. We applied each of the heuristics developed to Solomon's 56 VRPTW 100customer instances, and yielded 18 solutions better than or equivalent to the best solution ever published for these problems. This paper is also among the first to document the implementation of all the
Memetic Algorithms for the Traveling Salesman Problem
 Complex Systems
, 1997
"... this paper, the tness landscapes of several instances of the traveling salesman problem (TSP) are investigated to illustrate why MAs are wellsuited for nding nearoptimum tours for the TSP. It is shown that recombination{based MAs can exploit the correlation structure of the landscape. A comparis ..."
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Cited by 28 (7 self)
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this paper, the tness landscapes of several instances of the traveling salesman problem (TSP) are investigated to illustrate why MAs are wellsuited for nding nearoptimum tours for the TSP. It is shown that recombination{based MAs can exploit the correlation structure of the landscape. A comparison of several recombination operators { including a new generic recombination operator { reveals that when using the sophisticated Lin{Kernighan local search, the performance dierence of the MAs is small. However, the most important property of eective recombination operators is shown to be respectfulness. In experiments it is shown that our MAs with generic recombination are among the best evolutionary algorithms for the TSP. In particular, optimum solutions could be found up to a problem size of 3795, and for large instances up to 85,900 cities, nearoptimum solutions could be found in a reasonable amount of time
Decomposing Bayesian Networks: Triangulation of Moral Graph with Genetic Algorithms
 Statistics and Computing
, 1997
"... In this paper we consider the optimal decomposition of Bayesian networks. More concretely, we examine  empirically , the applicability of genetic algorithms to the problem of the triangulation of moral graphs. This problem constitutes the only difficult step in the evidence propagation algorithm ..."
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Cited by 22 (4 self)
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In this paper we consider the optimal decomposition of Bayesian networks. More concretely, we examine  empirically , the applicability of genetic algorithms to the problem of the triangulation of moral graphs. This problem constitutes the only difficult step in the evidence propagation algorithm of Lauritzen and Spiegelhalter (1988) and is known to be NPhard (Wen, 1991). We carry out experiments with distinct crossover and mutation operators and with different population sizes, mutation rates and selection biasses. The results are analyzed statistically. They turn out to improve the results obtained with most other known triangulation methods (Kjaerulff, 1990) and are comparable to the ones obtained with simulated annealing (Kjaerulff, 1990; Kjaerulff, 1992). Keywords: Bayesian networks, genetic algorithms, optimal decomposition, graph triangulation, moral graph, NPhard problems, statistical analysis. 1 Introduction The Bayesian networks constitute a reasoning method based on p...