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MultiStage Programming: Its Theory and Applications
, 1999
"... MetaML is a statically typed functional programming language with special support for program generation. In addition to providing the standard features of contemporary programming languages such as Standard ML, MetaML provides three staging annotations. These staging annotations allow the construct ..."
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Cited by 85 (18 self)
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MetaML is a statically typed functional programming language with special support for program generation. In addition to providing the standard features of contemporary programming languages such as Standard ML, MetaML provides three staging annotations. These staging annotations allow the construction, combination, and execution of objectprograms. Our thesis is that MetaML's three staging annotations provide a useful, theoretically sound basis for building program generators. This dissertation reports on our study of MetaML's staging constructs, their use, their implementation, and their formal semantics. Our results include an extended example of where MetaML allows us to produce efficient programs, an explanation of why implementing these constructs in traditional ways can be challenging, two formulations of MetaML's semantics, a type system for MetaML, and a proposal for extending ...
TypeSafe Linking and Modular Assembly Language
, 1999
"... Linking is a lowlevel task that is usually vaguely specified, if at all, by language definitions. However, the security of web browsers and other extensible systems depends crucially upon a set of checks that must be performed at link time. Building upon the simple, but elegant ideas of Cardelli, a ..."
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Cited by 59 (1 self)
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Linking is a lowlevel task that is usually vaguely specified, if at all, by language definitions. However, the security of web browsers and other extensible systems depends crucially upon a set of checks that must be performed at link time. Building upon the simple, but elegant ideas of Cardelli, and module constructs from highlevel languages, we present a formal model of typed object files and a set of inference rules that are sufficient to guarantee that type safety is preserved by the linking process.
Typability and Type Checking in System F Are Equivalent and Undecidable
 Annals of Pure and Applied Logic
, 1998
"... Girard and Reynolds independently invented System F (a.k.a. the secondorder polymorphically typed lambda calculus) to handle problems in logic and computer programming language design, respectively. Viewing F in the Curry style, which associates types with untyped lambda terms, raises the questions ..."
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Cited by 58 (4 self)
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Girard and Reynolds independently invented System F (a.k.a. the secondorder polymorphically typed lambda calculus) to handle problems in logic and computer programming language design, respectively. Viewing F in the Curry style, which associates types with untyped lambda terms, raises the questions of typability and type checking . Typability asks for a term whether there exists some type it can be given. Type checking asks, for a particular term and type, whether the term can be given that type. The decidability of these problems has been settled for restrictions and extensions of F and related systems and complexity lowerbounds have been determined for typability in F, but this report is the rst to resolve whether these problems are decidable for System F. This report proves that type checking in F is undecidable, by a reduction from semiuni cation, and that typability in F is undecidable, by a reduction from type checking. Because there is an easy reduction from typability to typ...
An Algorithm for TypeChecking Dependent Types
 Science of Computer Programming
, 1996
"... We present a simple typechecker for a language with dependent types and let expressions, with a simple proof of correctness. Introduction Type Theory provides an interesting approach to the problem of (interactive) proofchecking. Instead of introducing, like in LCF [10], an abstract data type of t ..."
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Cited by 44 (4 self)
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We present a simple typechecker for a language with dependent types and let expressions, with a simple proof of correctness. Introduction Type Theory provides an interesting approach to the problem of (interactive) proofchecking. Instead of introducing, like in LCF [10], an abstract data type of theorems, it uses the proofsasprograms analogy and reduces the problem of proof checking to the problem of typechecking in a programming language with dependent types [5]. This approach presents several advantages, well described in [11,5], among those being the possibility of independent proof verification and of a uniform treatment for naming constants and theorems. It is crucial however for this approach to proofchecking to have a simple and reliable typechecking algorithm. Since the core part of such languages, like the ones described in [5,7], seems very simple, there may be some hope for such a short and simple typechecker for dependent types. Indeed, de Bruijn sketches such an al...
TypeTheoretic Methodology For Practical Programming Languages
 DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, CORNELL UNIVERSITY
, 1998
"... The significance of type theory to the theory of programming languages has long been recognized. Advances in programming languages have often derived from understanding that stems from type theory. However, these applications of type theory to practical programming languages have been indirect; the ..."
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Cited by 22 (3 self)
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The significance of type theory to the theory of programming languages has long been recognized. Advances in programming languages have often derived from understanding that stems from type theory. However, these applications of type theory to practical programming languages have been indirect; the differences between practical languages and type theory have prevented direct connections between the two. This dissertation presents systematic techniques directly relating practical programming languages to type theory. These techniques allow programming languages to be interpreted in the rich mathematical domain of type theory. Such interpretations lead to semantics that are at once denotational and operational, combining the advantages of each, and they also lay the foundation for formal verification of computer programs in type theory. Previous type theories either have not provided adequate expressiveness to interpret practical languages, or have provided such expressiveness at the expense of essential features of the type theory. In particular, no previous type theory has supported a notion of partial functions (needed to interpret recursion in practical languages), and a notion of total functions and objects (needed to reason about data values), and an intrinsic notion of equality (needed for most interesting results). This dissertation presents the first type theory incorporating all three, and discusses issues arising in the design of that type theory. This type theory is used as the target of a typetheoretic semantics for a expressive programming calculus. This calculus may serve as an internal language for a variety of functional programming languages. The semantics is stated as a syntaxdirected embedding of the programming calculus into type theory. A critical point arising in both the type theory and the typetheoretic semantics is the issue of admissibility. Admissibility governs what types it is legal to form recursive functions over. To build a useful type theory for partial functions it is necessary to have a wide class of admissible types. In particular, it is necessary for all the types arising in the typetheoretic semantics to be admissible. In this dissertation I present a class of admissible types that is considerably wider than any previously known class.
Foundations for the Implementation of HigherOrder Subtyping
, 1997
"... We show how to implement a calculus with higherorder subtyping and subkinding by replacing uses of implicit subsumption with explicit coercions. To ensure this can be done, a polymorphic function is adjusted to take, as an additional argument, a proof that its type constructor argument has the desi ..."
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Cited by 13 (6 self)
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We show how to implement a calculus with higherorder subtyping and subkinding by replacing uses of implicit subsumption with explicit coercions. To ensure this can be done, a polymorphic function is adjusted to take, as an additional argument, a proof that its type constructor argument has the desired kind. Such a proof is extracted from the derivation of a kinding judgement and may in turn require proof coercions, which are extracted from subkinding judgements. This technique is formalized as a typedirected translation from a calculus of higherorder subtyping to a subtypingfree calculus. This translation generalizes an existing result for secondorder subtyping calculi (such as F ). We also discuss two interpretations of subtyping, one that views it as type inclusion and another that views it as the existence of a wellbehaved coercion, and we show, by a typetheoretic construction, that our translation is the minimum consequence of shifting from the inclusion interpretation to th...
Typability and Type Checking in the SecondOrder lambdaCalculus Are Equivalent and Undecidable
, 1993
"... We consider the problems of typability and type checking in the Girard/Reynolds secondorder polymorphic typedcalculus, for which we use the short name "System F" and which we use in the "Curry style" where types are assigned to pureterms. These problems have been considered and proven to be d ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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We consider the problems of typability and type checking in the Girard/Reynolds secondorder polymorphic typedcalculus, for which we use the short name "System F" and which we use in the "Curry style" where types are assigned to pureterms. These problems have been considered and proven to be decidable or undecidable for various restrictions and extensions of System F and other related systems, and lowerbound complexity results for System F have been achieved, but they have remained "embarrassing open problems" 3 for System F itself. We first prove that type checking in System F is undecidable by a reduction from semiunification. We then prove typability in System F is undecidable by a reduction from type checking. Since the reverse reduction is already known, this implies the two problems are equivalent. The second reduction uses a novel method of constructingterms such that in all type derivations, specific bound variables must always be assigned a specific type. Using this technique, we can require that specif subterms must be typable using a specific, fixed type assignment in order for the entire term to be typable at all. Any desired type assignment maybe simulated. We develop this method, which we call \constants for free", for both the K and I calculi.
Implementing Typeful Program Transformations
"... The notion of program transformation is ubiquitous in programming language studies on interpreters, compilers, partial evaluators, etc. In order to implement a program transformation, we need to choose a representation in the meta language, that is, the programming language in which we construct p ..."
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Cited by 11 (1 self)
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The notion of program transformation is ubiquitous in programming language studies on interpreters, compilers, partial evaluators, etc. In order to implement a program transformation, we need to choose a representation in the meta language, that is, the programming language in which we construct programs, for representing object programs, that is, the programs in the object language on which the program transformation is to be performed. In practice, most representations chosen for typed...
Type System of an ObjectOriented Database Programming Language (Extended Abstract)
 ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR
, 1999
"... In this paper we present the type system of the TIGUKAT database programming language. It is a highly parametric objectoriented type system that combines multiple dispatch with reflexivity, separation of interface and implementation, precise behavior typing, and union and intersection types. We dem ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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In this paper we present the type system of the TIGUKAT database programming language. It is a highly parametric objectoriented type system that combines multiple dispatch with reflexivity, separation of interface and implementation, precise behavior typing, and union and intersection types. We demonstrate the inner workings of the type system by considering a concrete example of type specification in TIGUKAT. We also review type systems of several existing programming languages and conclude that the proposed type system has a unique combination of features particularly suited for objectoriented database programming. This is an expanded version of the extended abstract submitted to DBPL 97. 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1 Introduction In the past two decades, several new database application areas have emerged. These new areas include office automation systems, geographical information systems, CASE tools, medical systems, and CAD/CAM systems. These complicated applications demand new, more ...
ClassisType is Inadequate for Object Reuse
 ACM SIGPLAN Notices
, 2001
"... The concepts of the basic entities, i.e., objects, object classes, object types, etc., in the type hierarchy of objectoriented languages are revisited. The notion of object reuse is defined and elaborated. We show that while object classes are useful in object description and creation, the class ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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The concepts of the basic entities, i.e., objects, object classes, object types, etc., in the type hierarchy of objectoriented languages are revisited. The notion of object reuse is defined and elaborated. We show that while object classes are useful in object description and creation, the classistype principle which is used in many objectoriented languages is inadequate for object reuse. We also show that parameterized types and generic functions are better served by using kindbounded qualification than universal qualification and other mechanisms. Keywords: Object reuse, software integration, objects, classes, types, kinds, classistype principle, parameterized types, generic functions, kindbounded polymorphism 1