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217
Unreliable Failure Detectors for Reliable Distributed Systems
 Journal of the ACM
, 1996
"... We introduce the concept of unreliable failure detectors and study how they can be used to solve Consensus in asynchronous systems with crash failures. We characterise unreliable failure detectors in terms of two properties — completeness and accuracy. We show that Consensus can be solved even with ..."
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Cited by 1089 (19 self)
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We introduce the concept of unreliable failure detectors and study how they can be used to solve Consensus in asynchronous systems with crash failures. We characterise unreliable failure detectors in terms of two properties — completeness and accuracy. We show that Consensus can be solved even with unreliable failure detectors that make an infinite number of mistakes, and determine which ones can be used to solve Consensus despite any number of crashes, and which ones require a majority of correct processes. We prove that Consensus and Atomic Broadcast are reducible to each other in asynchronous systems with crash failures; thus the above results also apply to Atomic Broadcast. A companion paper shows that one of the failure detectors introduced here is the weakest failure detector for solving Consensus [Chandra et al. 1992].
Multiparty Communication Complexity
, 1989
"... A given Boolean function has its input distributed among many parties. The aim is to determine which parties to tMk to and what information to exchange with each of them in order to evaluate the function while minimizing the total communication. This paper shows that it is possible to obtain the Boo ..."
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Cited by 764 (22 self)
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A given Boolean function has its input distributed among many parties. The aim is to determine which parties to tMk to and what information to exchange with each of them in order to evaluate the function while minimizing the total communication. This paper shows that it is possible to obtain the Boolean answer deterministically with only a polynomial increase in communication with respect to the information lower bound given by the nondeterministic communication complexity of the function.
Probabilistic Simulations for Probabilistic Processes
, 1994
"... Several probabilistic simulation relations for probabilistic systems are defined and evaluated according to two criteria: compositionality and preservation of "interesting" properties. Here, the interesting properties of a system are identified with those that are expressible in an untimed ..."
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Cited by 367 (22 self)
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Several probabilistic simulation relations for probabilistic systems are defined and evaluated according to two criteria: compositionality and preservation of "interesting" properties. Here, the interesting properties of a system are identified with those that are expressible in an untimed version of the Timed Probabilistic concurrent Computation Tree Logic (TPCTL) of Hansson. The definitions are made, and the evaluations carried out, in terms of a general labeled transition system model for concurrent probabilistic computation. The results cover weak simulations, which abstract from internal computation, as well as strong simulations, which do not.
On the Minimal Synchronism Needed for Distributed Consensus
 Journal of the ACM
, 1987
"... Abstract. Reaching agreement is a primitive of distributed computing. Whereas this poses no problem in an ideal, failurefree environment, it imposes certain constraints on the capabilities of an actual system: A system is viable only if it permits the existence of consensus protocols tolerant to so ..."
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Cited by 267 (11 self)
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Abstract. Reaching agreement is a primitive of distributed computing. Whereas this poses no problem in an ideal, failurefree environment, it imposes certain constraints on the capabilities of an actual system: A system is viable only if it permits the existence of consensus protocols tolerant to some number of failures. Fischer et al. have shown that in a completely asynchronous model, even one failure cannot be tolerated. In this paper their work is extended: Several critical system parameters, including various synchrony conditions, are identified and how varying these affects the number of faults that can be tolerated is examined. The proofs expose general heuristic principles that explain why consensus is possible in certain models but not possible in others.
Total order broadcast and multicast algorithms: Taxonomy and survey
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2004
"... ..."
Asynchronous Consensus and Broadcast Protocols
 Journal of the ACM
, 1985
"... Abstract. A consensus protocol enables a system of n asynchronous processes, some of which are faulty, to reach agreement. There are two kinds of faulty processes: failstop processes that can only die and malicious processes that can also send false messages. The class of asynchronous systems with ..."
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Cited by 173 (4 self)
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Abstract. A consensus protocol enables a system of n asynchronous processes, some of which are faulty, to reach agreement. There are two kinds of faulty processes: failstop processes that can only die and malicious processes that can also send false messages. The class of asynchronous systems with fair schedulers is defined, and consensus protocols that terminate with probability I for these systems are investigated. With failstop processes, it is shown that r(n + 1)/21 correct processes are necessary and sufficient to reach agreement. In the malicious case, it is shown that r(2n + 1)/31 correct processes are necessary and sufficient to reach agreement. This is contrasted with an earlier result, stating that there is no consensus protocol for the failstop case that always terminates within a bounded number of steps, even if only one process can fail. The possibility of reliable broadcast (Byzantine Agreement) in asynchronous systems is also investigated. Asynchronous Byzantine Agreement is defined, and it is shown that I(2n + 1)/31 correct processes are necessary and sufficient to achieve it.
Oneway accumulators: A decentralized alternative to digital signatures
, 1993
"... Abstract. This paper describes a simple candidate oneway hash function which satisfies a quasicommutative property that allows it to be used aa an accumulator. This property allows protocols to be developed in which the need for a trusted central authority can be eliminated. Spaceefficient distr ..."
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Cited by 153 (0 self)
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Abstract. This paper describes a simple candidate oneway hash function which satisfies a quasicommutative property that allows it to be used aa an accumulator. This property allows protocols to be developed in which the need for a trusted central authority can be eliminated. Spaceefficient distributed protocols are given for document time stamping and for membership testing, and many other applications are possible. 1
Fast Randomized Consensus using Shared Memory
 Journal of Algorithms
, 1988
"... We give a new randomized algorithm for achieving consensus among asynchronous processes that communicate by reading and writing shared registers. The fastest previously known algorithm has exponential expected running time. Our algorithm is polynomial, requiring an expected O(n 4 ) operations ..."
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Cited by 136 (32 self)
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We give a new randomized algorithm for achieving consensus among asynchronous processes that communicate by reading and writing shared registers. The fastest previously known algorithm has exponential expected running time. Our algorithm is polynomial, requiring an expected O(n 4 ) operations. Applications of this algorithm include the elimination of critical sections from concurrent data structures and the construction of asymptotically unbiased shared coins.
Reaching approximate agreement in the presence of faults
 Journal of the ACM
, 1986
"... Abstract. This paper considers a variant of the Byzantine Generals problem, in which processes start with arbitrary real values rather than Boolean values or values from some bounded range, and in which approximate, rather than exact, agreement is the desired goal. Algorithms are presented to reach ..."
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Cited by 135 (12 self)
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Abstract. This paper considers a variant of the Byzantine Generals problem, in which processes start with arbitrary real values rather than Boolean values or values from some bounded range, and in which approximate, rather than exact, agreement is the desired goal. Algorithms are presented to reach approximate agreement in asynchronous, as well as synchronous systems. The asynchronous agreement algorithm is an interesting contrast to a result of Fischer et al, who show that exact agreement with guaranteed termination is not attainable in an asynchronous system with as few as one faulty process. The algorithms work by successive approximation, with a provable convergence rate that depends on the ratio between the number of faulty processes and the total number of processes. Lower bounds on the convergence rate for algorithms of this form are proved, and the algorithms presented are shown to