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319
Topology Control of Multihop Wireless Networks using Transmit Power Adjustment
, 2000
"... We consider the problem of adjusting the transmit powers of nodes in a multihop wireless network (also called an ad hoc network) to create a desired topology. We formulate it as a constrained optimization problem with two constraints  connectivity and biconnectivity, and one optimization objective ..."
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Cited by 528 (3 self)
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We consider the problem of adjusting the transmit powers of nodes in a multihop wireless network (also called an ad hoc network) to create a desired topology. We formulate it as a constrained optimization problem with two constraints  connectivity and biconnectivity, and one optimization objective  maximum power used. We present two centralized algorithms for use in static networks, and prove their optimality. For mobile networks, we present two distributed heuristics that adaptively adjust node transmit powers in response to topological changes and attempt to maintain a connected topology using minimum power. We analyze the throughput, delay, and power consumption of our algorithms using a prototype software implementation, an emulation of a powercontrollable radio, and a detailed channel model. Our results show that the performance of multihop wireless networks in practice can be substantially increased with topology control.
Global Minimum for Active Contour Models: A Minimal Path Approach
, 1997
"... A new boundary detection approach for shape modeling is presented. It detects the global minimum of an active contour model’s energy between two end points. Initialization is made easier and the curve is not trapped at a local minimum by spurious edges. We modify the “snake” energy by including the ..."
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Cited by 196 (65 self)
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A new boundary detection approach for shape modeling is presented. It detects the global minimum of an active contour model’s energy between two end points. Initialization is made easier and the curve is not trapped at a local minimum by spurious edges. We modify the “snake” energy by including the internal regularization term in the external potential term. Our method is based on finding a path of minimal length in a Riemannian metric. We then make use of a new efficient numerical method to find this shortest path. It is shown that the proposed energy, though based only on a potential integrated along the curve, imposes a regularization effect like snakes. We explore the relation between the maximum curvature along the resulting contour and the potential generated from the image. The method is capable to close contours, given only one point on the objects’ boundary by using a topologybased saddle search routine. We show examples of our method applied to real aerial and medical images.
Arc Consistency for General Constraint Networks: Preliminary Results
, 1997
"... Constraint networks are used more and more to solve combinatorial problems in reallife applications. Much activity is concentrated on improving the efficiency of finding a solution in a constraint network (the constraint satisfaction problem, CSP). Particularly, arc consistency caught many research ..."
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Cited by 127 (15 self)
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Constraint networks are used more and more to solve combinatorial problems in reallife applications. Much activity is concentrated on improving the efficiency of finding a solution in a constraint network (the constraint satisfaction problem, CSP). Particularly, arc consistency caught many researchers' attention, involving the discovery of a large number of algorithms. And, for the last two years, it has been shown that maintaining arc consistency during search is a worthwhile approach. However, results on CSPs and on arc consistency are almost always limited to binary constraint networks. The CSP is no longer an academic problem, and it is time to deal with nonbinary CSPs, as widely required in real world constraint solvers. This paper proposes a general schema to implement arc consistency on constraints of any arity when no specific algorithm is known. A first instantiation of the schema is presented here, which deals with constraints given by a predicate, by the set of forbidden c...
Unbounded Length Contexts for PPM
 The Computer Journal
, 1995
"... uses considerably greater computational resources (both time and space). The next section describes the basic PPM compression scheme. Following that we motivate the use of contexts of unbounded length, introduce the new method, and show how it can be implemented using a trie data structure. Then we ..."
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Cited by 111 (7 self)
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uses considerably greater computational resources (both time and space). The next section describes the basic PPM compression scheme. Following that we motivate the use of contexts of unbounded length, introduce the new method, and show how it can be implemented using a trie data structure. Then we give some results that demonstrate an improvement of about 6% over the old method. Finally, a recentlypublished and seemingly unrelated compression scheme [2] is related to the unboundedcontext idea that forms the essential innovation of PPM*. 1 PPM: Prediction by partial match The basic idea of PPM is to use the last few characters in the input stream to predict the upcoming one. Models that condition their predictions on a few immediately preceding symbols are called "finitecontext" models of order k, where k is the number of preceding symbols used. PPM employs a suite of fixedorder context models with different values of k
Towards the Digital Music Library: Tune Retrieval From . . .
, 1996
"... Music is traditionally retrieved by title, composer or subject classification. It is possible, with current technology, to retrieve music from a database on the basis of a few notes sung or hummed into a microphone. This paper describes the implementation of such a system, and discusses several issu ..."
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Cited by 109 (11 self)
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Music is traditionally retrieved by title, composer or subject classification. It is possible, with current technology, to retrieve music from a database on the basis of a few notes sung or hummed into a microphone. This paper describes the implementation of such a system, and discusses several issues pertaining to music retrieval. We first describe an interface that transcribes acoustic input into standard music notation. We then analyze string matching requirements for ranked retrieval of music and present the results of an experiment which tests how accurately people sing well known melodies. The performance of several string matching criteria are analyzed using two folk song databases. Finally, we describe a prototype system which has been developed for retrieval of tunes from acoustic input.
An extended localized algorithm for connected dominating set formation in ad hoc wireless networks
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
, 2004
"... Efficient routing among a set of mobile hosts is one of the most important functions in ad hoc wireless networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the search space for a route is reduced to the hosts in the set. A set is dominating if all the hosts in the sy ..."
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Cited by 103 (14 self)
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Efficient routing among a set of mobile hosts is one of the most important functions in ad hoc wireless networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the search space for a route is reduced to the hosts in the set. A set is dominating if all the hosts in the system are either in the set or neighbors of hosts in the set. The efficiency of dominatingsetbased routing mainly depends on the overhead introduced in the formation of the dominating set and the size of the dominating set. In this paper, we first review a localized formation of a connected dominating set called marking process and dominatingsetbased routing. Then, we propose a dominant pruning rule to reduce the size of the dominating set. This dominant pruning rule (called Rule k) is a generalization of two existing rules (called Rule 1 and Rule 2, respectively). We prove that the vertex set derived by applying Rule k is still a connected dominating set. Rule k is more effective in reducing the dominating set derived from the marking process than the combination of Rules 1 and 2 and, surprisingly, in a restricted implementation with local neighborhood information, Rule k has the same communication complexity and less computation complexity. Simulation results confirm that Rule k outperforms Rules 1 and 2, especially in networks with relatively high vertex degree and high percentage of unidirectional links. We also prove that an upper bound exists on the average size of the dominating set derived from Rule k in its restricted implementation.
Data Exploration Using SelfOrganizing Maps
 ACTA POLYTECHNICA SCANDINAVICA: MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING AND MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING SERIES NO. 82
, 1997
"... Finding structures in vast multidimensional data sets, be they measurement data, statistics, or textual documents, is difficult and timeconsuming. Interesting, novel relations between the data items may be hidden in the data. The selforganizing map (SOM) algorithm of Kohonen can be used to aid the ..."
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Cited by 96 (4 self)
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Finding structures in vast multidimensional data sets, be they measurement data, statistics, or textual documents, is difficult and timeconsuming. Interesting, novel relations between the data items may be hidden in the data. The selforganizing map (SOM) algorithm of Kohonen can be used to aid the exploration: the structures in the data sets can be illustrated on special map displays. In this work, the methodology of using SOMs for exploratory data analysis or data mining is reviewed and developed further. The properties of the maps are compared with the properties of related methods intended for visualizing highdimensional multivariate data sets. In a set of case studies the SOM algorithm is applied to analyzing electroencephalograms, to illustrating structures of the standard of living in the world, and to organizing fulltext document collections. Measures are proposed for evaluating the quality of different types of maps in representing a given data set, and for measuring the robu...
AverageCase Analysis of Algorithms and Data Structures
, 1990
"... This report is a contributed chapter to the Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science (NorthHolland, 1990). Its aim is to describe the main mathematical methods and applications in the averagecase analysis of algorithms and data structures. It comprises two parts: First, we present basic combinato ..."
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Cited by 96 (8 self)
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This report is a contributed chapter to the Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science (NorthHolland, 1990). Its aim is to describe the main mathematical methods and applications in the averagecase analysis of algorithms and data structures. It comprises two parts: First, we present basic combinatorial enumerations based on symbolic methods and asymptotic methods with emphasis on complex analysis techniques (such as singularity analysis, saddle point, Mellin transforms). Next, we show how to apply these general methods to the analysis of sorting, searching, tree data structures, hashing, and dynamic algorithms. The emphasis is on algorithms for which exact "analytic models" can be derived.
Coordinated Target Assignment and Intercept for Unmanned Air Vehicles
, 2002
"... This paper presents an endtoend solution to the battlefield scenario where M unmanned air vehicles are assigned to strike N known targets, in the presence of dynamic threats. The problem is decomposed into the subproblems of (1) cooperative target assignment, (2) coordinated UAV intercept, (3) pat ..."
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Cited by 93 (11 self)
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This paper presents an endtoend solution to the battlefield scenario where M unmanned air vehicles are assigned to strike N known targets, in the presence of dynamic threats. The problem is decomposed into the subproblems of (1) cooperative target assignment, (2) coordinated UAV intercept, (3) path planning, and (4) feasible trajectory generation. The design technique is based on a hierarchical approach to coordinated control. Detailed simulation results are presented.
Practical Solutions for QoSbased Resource Allocation Problems
 In IEEE RealTime Systems Symposium
, 1998
"... RAM) proposed in [20] presented an analytical approach for satisfying multiple qualityofservice dimensions in a resourceconstrained environment. Using this model, available system resources can be apportioned across multiple applications such that the net utility that accrues to the endusers of ..."
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Cited by 89 (6 self)
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RAM) proposed in [20] presented an analytical approach for satisfying multiple qualityofservice dimensions in a resourceconstrained environment. Using this model, available system resources can be apportioned across multiple applications such that the net utility that accrues to the endusers of those applications is maximized. In this paper, we present several practical solutions to allocation problems that were beyond the limited scope of [20]. First, we show that the QRAM problem of finding the optimal resource allocation to satisfy multiple QoS dimensions (at least one of which is dependent on another) is NPhard. We then present a polynomial solution for this resource allocation problem which yields a solution within a provably fixed and short distance from the optimal allocation. Secondly, [20] dealt mainly with the problem of apportioning a single resource to satisfy multiple QoS dimensions. In this paper, we study the converse problem of apportioning multiple resources to satisfy a single QoS dimension. In practice, this problem becomes complicated, since a single QoS dimension perceived by the user can be satisfied using different combinations of available resources. We show that this problem can be formulated as a mixed integer programming problem that can be solved efficiently to yield an optimal resource allocation. Finally, we also present the runtimes of these optimizations to illustrate how these solutions can be applied in practice. We expect that a good understanding of these solutions will yield insights into the general problem of apportioning multiple resources to satisfy simultaneously multiple QoS dimensions of multiple concurrent applications. 1.