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133
Using Generative Models for Handwritten Digit Recognition
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 1996
"... We describe a method of recognizing handwritten digits by fitting generative models that are built from deformable Bsplines with Gaussian "ink generators" spaced along the length of the spline. The splines are adjusted using a novel elastic matching procedure based on the Expectation Maximization ( ..."
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Cited by 70 (8 self)
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We describe a method of recognizing handwritten digits by fitting generative models that are built from deformable Bsplines with Gaussian "ink generators" spaced along the length of the spline. The splines are adjusted using a novel elastic matching procedure based on the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm that maximizes the likelihood of the model generating the data. This approach has many advantages. (1) After identifying the model most likely to have generated the data, the system not only produces a classification of the digit but also a rich description of the instantiation parameters which can yield information such as the writing style. (2) During the process of explaining the image, generative models can perform recognition driven segmentation. (3) The method involves a relatively small number of parameters and hence training is relatively easy and fast. (4) Unlike many other recognition schemes it does not rely on some form of prenormalization of input images, but can ...
Adaptive elastic models for handprinted character recognition
 ADVANCES IN NEURAL INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEMS
, 1992
"... Handprinted digits can be modeled as splines that are governed by about 8 control points. For each known digit, the control points have preferred "home" locations, and deformations of the digit are generated by moving the control points away from their home locations. Images of digits can be produc ..."
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Cited by 57 (8 self)
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Handprinted digits can be modeled as splines that are governed by about 8 control points. For each known digit, the control points have preferred "home" locations, and deformations of the digit are generated by moving the control points away from their home locations. Images of digits can be produced by placing Gaussian ink generators uniformly along the spline. Real images can be recognized by nding the digit model most likely to have generated the data. For each digit model we use an elastic matching algorithm to minimize an energy function that includes both the deformation energy of the digit model and the log probability that the model would generate the inked pixels in the image. The model with the lowest total energy wins. If a uniform noise process is included in the model of image generation, some of the inked pixels can be rejected as noise as a digit model is tting a poorly segmented image. The digit models learn by modifying the home locations of the control points.
Vector Quantization with Complexity Costs
, 1993
"... Vector quantization is a data compression method where a set of data points is encoded by a reduced set of reference vectors, the codebook. We discuss a vector quantization strategy which jointly optimizes distortion errors and the codebook complexity, thereby, determining the size of the codebook. ..."
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Cited by 54 (18 self)
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Vector quantization is a data compression method where a set of data points is encoded by a reduced set of reference vectors, the codebook. We discuss a vector quantization strategy which jointly optimizes distortion errors and the codebook complexity, thereby, determining the size of the codebook. A maximum entropy estimation of the cost function yields an optimal number of reference vectors, their positions and their assignment probabilities. The dependence of the codebook density on the data density for different complexity functions is investigated in the limit of asymptotic quantization levels. How different complexity measures influence the efficiency of vector quantizers is studied for the task of image compression, i.e., we quantize the wavelet coefficients of gray level images and measure the reconstruction error. Our approach establishes a unifying framework for different quantization methods like Kmeans clustering and its fuzzy version, entropy constrained vector quantizati...
Memetic Algorithms for Combinatorial Optimization Problems: Fitness Landscapes and Effective Search Strategies
, 2001
"... ..."
Efficient learning in Boltzmann Machines using linear response theory
 Neural Computation
, 1997
"... The learning process in Boltzmann Machines is computationally very expensive. The computational complexity of the exact algorithm is exponential in the number of neurons. We present a new approximate learning algorithm for Boltzmann Machines, which is based on mean field theory and the linear respon ..."
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Cited by 44 (5 self)
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The learning process in Boltzmann Machines is computationally very expensive. The computational complexity of the exact algorithm is exponential in the number of neurons. We present a new approximate learning algorithm for Boltzmann Machines, which is based on mean field theory and the linear response theorem. The computational complexity of the algorithm is cubic in the number of neurons. In the absence of hidden units, we show how the weights can be directly computed from the fixed point equation of the learning rules. Thus, in this case we do not need to use a gradient descent procedure for the learning process. We show that the solutions of this method are close to the optimal solutions and give a significant improvement when correlations play a significant role. Finally, we apply the method to a pattern completion task and show good performance for networks up to 100 neurons. 1 Introduction Boltzmann Machines (BMs) (Ackley et al., 1985), are networks of binary neurons with a stoc...
Constrained clustering as an optimization method
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1993
"... AbstractOur deterministic annealing approach to clustering is derived on the basis of the principle of maximum entropy, is independent of the initial state, and produces natural hierarchical clustering solutions by going through a sequence of phase transitions. This approach is modified here for a ..."
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Cited by 43 (7 self)
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AbstractOur deterministic annealing approach to clustering is derived on the basis of the principle of maximum entropy, is independent of the initial state, and produces natural hierarchical clustering solutions by going through a sequence of phase transitions. This approach is modified here for a larger class of optimization problems by adding constraints to the free energy. The concept of constrained clustering is explained, and then, three examples are given in which it is used as means to introduce deterministic annealing. First, the previous clustering method is improved by adding cluster mass variables and a total mass constraint. Second, the traveling salesman problem (TSP) is reformulated as constrained clustering, yielding the elastic net (EN) approach to the problem. More insight is gained by identifying a second Lagrange multiplier that is related to the tour length add can also be used to control the annealing process. Finally, the “open path ” constraint formulation is shown to relate to dimensionality reduction by selforganization in unsupervised learning. A similar annealing procedure is applicable in this case as well. Index TermsAnnealing, clustering, maximum entropy, neural networks, nonconvex optimization, selforganization.
Controling the Magnification Factor of SelfOrganizing Feature Maps
, 1995
"... The magnification exponents ¯ occuring in adaptive map formation algorithms like Kohonen's selforganizing feature map deviate for the information theoretically optimal value ¯ = 1 as well as from the values which optimize, e.g., the mean square distortion error (¯ = 1=3 for onedimensional maps). A ..."
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Cited by 40 (7 self)
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The magnification exponents ¯ occuring in adaptive map formation algorithms like Kohonen's selforganizing feature map deviate for the information theoretically optimal value ¯ = 1 as well as from the values which optimize, e.g., the mean square distortion error (¯ = 1=3 for onedimensional maps). At the same time, models for categorical perception such as the "perceptual magnet" effect which are based on topographic maps require negative magnification exponents ¯ ! 0. We present an extension of the selforganizing feature map algorithm which utilizes adaptive local learning step sizes to actually control the magnification properties of the map. By change of a single parameter, maps with optimal information transfer, with various minimal reconstruction errors, or with an inverted magnification can be generated. Analytic results on this new algorithm are complemented by numerical simulations. 1. Introduction The representation of information in topographic maps is a common property of...
Morphable Surface Models
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 2000
"... Abstract. We describe a novel automatic technique for finding a dense correspondence between a pair of ndimensional surfaces with arbitrary topologies. This method employs a different formulation than previous correspondence algorithms (such as optical flow) and includes images as a special case. W ..."
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Cited by 32 (0 self)
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Abstract. We describe a novel automatic technique for finding a dense correspondence between a pair of ndimensional surfaces with arbitrary topologies. This method employs a different formulation than previous correspondence algorithms (such as optical flow) and includes images as a special case. We use this correspondence algorithm to build Morphable Surface Models (an extension of Morphable Models) from examples. We present a method for matching the model to new surfaces and demonstrate their use for analysis, synthesis, and clustering. 1.
A Unifying Objective Function for Topographic Mappings
, 1997
"... Many different algorithms and objective functions for topographic mappings have been proposed. We show that several of these approaches can be seen as particular cases of a more general objective function. Consideration of a very simple mapping problem reveals large differences in the form of the ma ..."
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Cited by 30 (4 self)
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Many different algorithms and objective functions for topographic mappings have been proposed. We show that several of these approaches can be seen as particular cases of a more general objective function. Consideration of a very simple mapping problem reveals large differences in the form of the map that each particular case favors. These differences have important consequences for the practical application of topographic mapping methods.
Experiments in Competence Acquisition for Autonomous Mobile Robots
, 1992
"... This thesis addresses the problem of intelligent control of autonomous mobile robots, particularly under circumstances unforeseen by the designer. As the range of applications for autonomous robots widens and increasingly includes operation in unknown environments (exploration) and tasks which are n ..."
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Cited by 27 (16 self)
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This thesis addresses the problem of intelligent control of autonomous mobile robots, particularly under circumstances unforeseen by the designer. As the range of applications for autonomous robots widens and increasingly includes operation in unknown environments (exploration) and tasks which are not clearly specifiable a priori (maintenance work), this question is becoming more and more important. It is argued that in order to achieve such flexibility in unforeseen situations it is necessary to equip a mobile robot with the ability to autonomously acquire the necessary task achieving competences, through interaction with the world. Using mobile robots equipped with selforganising, behaviourbased controllers, experiments in the autonomous acquisition of motor competences and navigational skills were conducted to investigate the viability of this approach. A controller architecture is presented that allows extremely fast acquisition of motor competences such as obstacle avoidance, wa...