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32
Practical type inference for arbitraryrank types
 Journal of Functional Programming
, 2005
"... Note: This document accompanies the paper “Practical type inference for arbitraryrank types ” [6]. Prior reading of the main paper is required. 1 Contents ..."
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Cited by 91 (23 self)
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Note: This document accompanies the paper “Practical type inference for arbitraryrank types ” [6]. Prior reading of the main paper is required. 1 Contents
A theory of overloading
 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS
, 2002
"... Abstract We introduce a novel approach for debugging illtyped programs in the Hindley/Milner system. We map the typing problem for a program to a system of constraints each attached to program code that generates the constraints. We use reasoning about constraint satisfiability and implication to f ..."
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Cited by 53 (18 self)
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Abstract We introduce a novel approach for debugging illtyped programs in the Hindley/Milner system. We map the typing problem for a program to a system of constraints each attached to program code that generates the constraints. We use reasoning about constraint satisfiability and implication to find minimal justifications of type errors, and to explain unexpected types that arise. Through an interactive process akin to declarative debugging, a user can track down exactly where a type error occurs. We are able to capture various extensions of the Hindley/Milner system such as type annotations and Haskellstyle type class overloading. The approach has been implemented as part of the Chameleon system.
Type inference against races
 In SAS
, 2004
"... Abstract. The race condition checker rccjava uses a formal type system to statically identify potential race conditions in concurrent Java programs, but it requires programmersupplied type annotations. This paper describes a type inference algorithm for rccjava. Due to the interaction of parameteri ..."
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Cited by 42 (4 self)
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Abstract. The race condition checker rccjava uses a formal type system to statically identify potential race conditions in concurrent Java programs, but it requires programmersupplied type annotations. This paper describes a type inference algorithm for rccjava. Due to the interaction of parameterized classes and dependent types, this type inference problem is NPcomplete. This complexity result motivates our new approach to type inference, which is via reduction to propositional satisfiability. This paper describes our type inference algorithm and its performance on programs of up to 30,000 lines of code. 1
Types and HigherOrder Recursion Schemes for Verification of HigherOrder Programs
, 2009
"... We propose a new verification method for temporal properties of higherorder functional programs, which takes advantage of Ong’s recent result on the decidability of the modelchecking problem for higherorder recursion schemes (HORS’s). A program is transformed to an HORS that generates a tree repr ..."
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Cited by 32 (7 self)
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We propose a new verification method for temporal properties of higherorder functional programs, which takes advantage of Ong’s recent result on the decidability of the modelchecking problem for higherorder recursion schemes (HORS’s). A program is transformed to an HORS that generates a tree representing all the possible event sequences of the program, and then the HORS is modelchecked. Unlike most of the previous methods for verification of higherorder programs, our verification method is sound and complete. Moreover, this new verification framework allows a smooth integration of abstract model checking techniques into verification of higherorder programs. We also present a typebased verification algorithm for HORS’s. The algorithm can deal with only a fragment of the properties expressed by modal μcalculus, but the algorithm and its correctness proof are (arguably) much simpler than those of Ong’s gamesemanticsbased algorithm. Moreover, while the HORS model checking problem is nEXPTIME in general, our algorithm is linear in the size of HORS, under the assumption that the sizes of types and specifications are bounded by a constant.
Scripting the Type Inference Process
, 2003
"... To improve the quality of type error messages in functional programming languages, we propose four techniques which influence the behaviour of constraintbased type inference processes. These techniques take the form of externally supplied type inference directives, precluding the need to make any c ..."
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Cited by 30 (15 self)
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To improve the quality of type error messages in functional programming languages, we propose four techniques which influence the behaviour of constraintbased type inference processes. These techniques take the form of externally supplied type inference directives, precluding the need to make any changes to the compiler. A second advantage is that the directives are automatically checked for soundness with respect to the underlying type system. We show how the techniques can be used to improve the type error messages reported for a combinator library. More specifically, how they can help to generate error messages which are conceptually closer to the domain for which the library was developed. The techniques have all been incorporated in the Helium compiler, which implements a large subset of Haskell.
Discovery of Minimal Unsatisfiable Subsets of Constraints Using Hitting Set Dualization
 In Proc. of the 7th International Symposium on Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages (PADL05
, 2005
"... Abstract. An unsatisfiable set of constraints is minimal if all its (strict) subsets are satisfiable. The task of type error diagnosis requires finding all minimal unsatisfiable subsets of a given set of constraints (representing an error), in order to generate the best explanation of the error. Sim ..."
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Cited by 29 (0 self)
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Abstract. An unsatisfiable set of constraints is minimal if all its (strict) subsets are satisfiable. The task of type error diagnosis requires finding all minimal unsatisfiable subsets of a given set of constraints (representing an error), in order to generate the best explanation of the error. Similarly circuit error diagnosis requires finding all minimal unsatisfiable subsets in order to make minimal diagnoses. In this paper we present a new approach for efficiently determining all minimal unsatisfiable sets for any kind of constraints. Our approach makes use of the duality that exists between minimal unsatisfiable constraint sets and maximal satisfiable constraint sets. We show how to incrementally compute both these sets, using the fact that the complements of the maximal satisfiable constraint sets are the hitting sets of the minimal unsatisfiable constraint sets. We experimentally compare our technique to the best known method on a number of large type problems and show that considerable improvements in running time are obtained.
Termination Checking with Types
, 1999
"... The paradigm of typebased termination is explored for functional programming with recursive data types. The article introduces , a lambdacalculus with recursion, inductive types, subtyping and bounded quanti cation. Decorated type variables representing approximations of inductive types ..."
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Cited by 28 (6 self)
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The paradigm of typebased termination is explored for functional programming with recursive data types. The article introduces , a lambdacalculus with recursion, inductive types, subtyping and bounded quanti cation. Decorated type variables representing approximations of inductive types are used to track the size of function arguments and return values. The system is shown to be type safe and strongly normalizing. The main novelty is a bidirectional type checking algorithm whose soundness is established formally.
Modular setbased analysis from contracts
 In Morrisett and Peyton Jones [27
"... In PLT Scheme, programs consist of modules with contracts. The latter describe the inputs and outputs of functions and objects via predicates. A runtime system enforces these predicates; if a predicate fails, the enforcer raises an exception that blames a specific module with an explanation of the ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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In PLT Scheme, programs consist of modules with contracts. The latter describe the inputs and outputs of functions and objects via predicates. A runtime system enforces these predicates; if a predicate fails, the enforcer raises an exception that blames a specific module with an explanation of the fault. In this paper, we show how to use such module contracts to turn setbased analysis into a fully modular parameterized analysis. Using this analysis, a static debugger can indicate for any given contract check whether the corresponding predicate is always satisfied, partially satisfied, or (potentially) completely violated. The static debugger can also predict the source of potential errors, i.e., it is sound with respect to the blame assignment of the contract system.
Expansion: the Crucial Mechanism for Type Inference with Intersection Types: Survey and Explanation
 In: (ITRS ’04
, 2005
"... The operation of expansion on typings was introduced at the end of the 1970s by Coppo, Dezani, and Venneri for reasoning about the possible typings of a term when using intersection types. Until recently, it has remained somewhat mysterious and unfamiliar, even though it is essential for carrying ..."
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Cited by 17 (7 self)
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The operation of expansion on typings was introduced at the end of the 1970s by Coppo, Dezani, and Venneri for reasoning about the possible typings of a term when using intersection types. Until recently, it has remained somewhat mysterious and unfamiliar, even though it is essential for carrying out compositional type inference. The fundamental idea of expansion is to be able to calculate the effect on the final judgement of a typing derivation of inserting a use of the intersectionintroduction typing rule at some (possibly deeply nested) position, without actually needing to build the new derivation.
A type system equivalent to a model checker
 In Proc. of the European Symp. on Prog
, 2005
"... Type systems and model checking are two prevalent approaches to program verification. A prominent difference between them is that type systems are typically defined in a syntactic and modular style whereas model checking is usually performed in a semantic and wholeprogram style. This difference bet ..."
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Cited by 14 (0 self)
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Type systems and model checking are two prevalent approaches to program verification. A prominent difference between them is that type systems are typically defined in a syntactic and modular style whereas model checking is usually performed in a semantic and wholeprogram style. This difference between the two approaches lends them complementary to each other: type systems are good at explaining why a program was accepted while model checkers are good at explaining why a program was rejected. We present a type system that is equivalent to a model checker for verifying temporal safety properties of imperative programs. The model checker is natural and may be instantiated with any finitestate abstraction scheme such as predicate abstraction. The type system, which is also parametric, type checks exactly those programs that are accepted by the model checker. It uses function types to capture flow sensitivity and intersection and union types to capture context sensitivity. Our result sheds light on the relationship between the two approaches, provides a methodology for studying their relative expressiveness, is a step towards sharing results between them, and motivates synergistic program analyses involving interplay between them.