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45
Term Rewriting Systems
, 1992
"... Term Rewriting Systems play an important role in various areas, such as abstract data type specifications, implementations of functional programming languages and automated deduction. In this chapter we introduce several of the basic comcepts and facts for TRS's. Specifically, we discuss Abstract Re ..."
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Cited by 567 (16 self)
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Term Rewriting Systems play an important role in various areas, such as abstract data type specifications, implementations of functional programming languages and automated deduction. In this chapter we introduce several of the basic comcepts and facts for TRS's. Specifically, we discuss Abstract Reduction Systems
An Implementation of Narrowing Strategies
 Journal of the ACM
, 2001
"... This paper describes an implementation of narrowing, an essential component of implementations of modern functional logic languages. These implementations rely on narrowing, in particular on some optimal narrowing strategies, to execute functional logic programs. We translate functional logic progra ..."
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Cited by 294 (123 self)
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This paper describes an implementation of narrowing, an essential component of implementations of modern functional logic languages. These implementations rely on narrowing, in particular on some optimal narrowing strategies, to execute functional logic programs. We translate functional logic programs into imperative (Java) programs without an intermediate abstract machine. A central idea of our approach is the explicit representation and processing of narrowing computations as data objects. This enables the implementation of operationally complete strategies (i.e., without backtracking) or techniques for search control (e.g., encapsulated search). Thanks to the use of an intermediate and portable representation of programs, our implementation is general enough to be used as a common back end for a wide variety of functional logic languages.
Rewriting Logic as a Logical and Semantic Framework
, 1993
"... Rewriting logic [72] is proposed as a logical framework in which other logics can be represented, and as a semantic framework for the specification of languages and systems. Using concepts from the theory of general logics [70], representations of an object logic L in a framework logic F are und ..."
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Cited by 147 (52 self)
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Rewriting logic [72] is proposed as a logical framework in which other logics can be represented, and as a semantic framework for the specification of languages and systems. Using concepts from the theory of general logics [70], representations of an object logic L in a framework logic F are understood as mappings L ! F that translate one logic into the other in a conservative way. The ease with which such maps can be defined for a number of quite different logics of interest, including equational logic, Horn logic with equality, linear logic, logics with quantifiers, and any sequent calculus presentation of a logic for a very general notion of "sequent," is discussed in detail. Using the fact that rewriting logic is reflective, it is often possible to reify inside rewriting logic itself a representation map L ! RWLogic for the finitely presentable theories of L. Such a reification takes the form of a map between the abstract data types representing the finitary theories of...
Narrowingdriven Partial Evaluation of Functional Logic Programs
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
, 1996
"... Languages that integrate functional and logic programming with a complete operational semantics are based on narrowing, a unificationbased goalsolving mechanism which subsumes the reduction principle of functional languages and the resolution principle of logic languages. Formal methods of transfo ..."
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Cited by 82 (38 self)
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Languages that integrate functional and logic programming with a complete operational semantics are based on narrowing, a unificationbased goalsolving mechanism which subsumes the reduction principle of functional languages and the resolution principle of logic languages. Formal methods of transformation of functional logic programs can be based on this wellestablished operational semantics. In this paper, we present a partial evaluation scheme for functional logic languages based on an automatic unfolding algorithm which builds narrowing trees. We study the semantic properties of the transformation and the conditions under which the technique terminates, is sound and complete, and is also generally applicable to a wide class of programs. We illustrate our method with several examples and discuss the relation with Supercompilation and Partial Evaluation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first formal approach to partial evaluation of functional logic programs.
Higherorder narrowing with definitional trees
 Neural Computation
, 1996
"... Functional logic languages with a sound and complete operational semantics are mainly based on narrowing. Due to the huge search space of simple narrowing, steadily improved narrowing strategies have been developed in the past. Needed narrowing is currently the best narrowing strategy for firstord ..."
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Cited by 78 (23 self)
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Functional logic languages with a sound and complete operational semantics are mainly based on narrowing. Due to the huge search space of simple narrowing, steadily improved narrowing strategies have been developed in the past. Needed narrowing is currently the best narrowing strategy for firstorder functional logic programs due to its optimality properties w.r.t. the length of derivations and the number of computed solutions. In this paper, we extend the needed narrowing strategy to higherorder functions and λterms as data structures. By the use of definitional trees, our strategy computes only incomparable solutions. Thus, it is the first calculus for higherorder functional logic programming which provides for such an optimality result. Since we allow higherorder logical variables denoting λterms, applications go beyond current functional and logic programming languages.
Computing Ramifications by Postprocessing
 Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI
, 1995
"... A solution to the ramification problem caused by underlying domain constraints in Stripslike approaches is presented. We introduce the notion of causal relationships which are used in a postprocessing step after having applied an action description. Moreover, we show how the information needed for ..."
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Cited by 44 (2 self)
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A solution to the ramification problem caused by underlying domain constraints in Stripslike approaches is presented. We introduce the notion of causal relationships which are used in a postprocessing step after having applied an action description. Moreover, we show how the information needed for these postcomputations can be automatically extracted from the domain constraints plus general knowledge of which fluents can possibly affect each other. We illustrate the necessity of causal relationships by an example that shows the limitedness of a common method to avoid unintended ramifications, namely, the distinction between socalled frame and nonframe fluents. Finally, we integrate our solution into a recently developed, Stripslike yet purely deductive approach to reasoning about actions based on Equational Logic Programming. 1 Introduction The ramification problem [ Finger, 1987 ] is usually regarded as one of the challenges to all formal frameworks for reasoning about actions a...
Specialization of Lazy Functional Logic Programs
 IN PROC. OF THE ACM SIGPLAN CONF. ON PARTIAL EVALUATION AND SEMANTICSBASED PROGRAM MANIPULATION, PEPM'97, VOLUME 32, 12 OF SIGPLAN NOTICES
, 1997
"... Partial evaluation is a method for program specialization based on fold/unfold transformations [8, 25]. Partial evaluation of pure functional programs uses mainly static values of given data to specialize the program [15, 44]. In logic programming, the socalled static/dynamic distinction is hard ..."
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Cited by 37 (23 self)
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Partial evaluation is a method for program specialization based on fold/unfold transformations [8, 25]. Partial evaluation of pure functional programs uses mainly static values of given data to specialize the program [15, 44]. In logic programming, the socalled static/dynamic distinction is hardly present, whereas considerations of determinacy and choice points are far more important for control [12]. We discuss these issues in the context of a (lazy) functional logic language. We formalize a twophase specialization method for a nonstrict, first order, integrated language which makes use of lazy narrowing to specialize the program w.r.t. a goal. The basic algorithm (first phase) is formalized as an instance of the framework for the partial evaluation of functional logic programs of [2, 3], using lazy narrowing. However, the results inherited by [2, 3] mainly regard the termination of the PE method, while the (strong) soundness and completeness results must be restated for the lazy strategy. A postprocessing renaming scheme (second phase) is necessary which we describe and illustrate on the wellknown matching example. This phase is essential also for other nonlazy narrowing strategies, like innermost narrowing, and our method can be easily extended to these strategies. We show that our method preserves the lazy narrowing semantics and that the inclusion of simplification steps in narrowing derivations can improve control during specialization.
The Integration of Functions into Logic Programming: A Survey
, 1994
"... Functional and logic programming are the most important declarative programming paradigms, and interest in combining them has grown over the last decade. Early research concentrated on the definition and improvement of execution principles for such integrated languages, while more recently efficient ..."
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Cited by 35 (0 self)
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Functional and logic programming are the most important declarative programming paradigms, and interest in combining them has grown over the last decade. Early research concentrated on the definition and improvement of execution principles for such integrated languages, while more recently efficient implementations of these execution principles have been developed so that these languages became relevant for practical applications. In this paper we survey the development of the operational semantics as well as
Categorybased Semantics for Equational and Constraint Logic Programming
, 1994
"... This thesis proposes a general framework for equational logic programming, called categorybased equational logic by placing the general principles underlying the design of the programming language Eqlog and formulated by Goguen and Meseguer into an abstract form. This framework generalises equation ..."
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Cited by 24 (10 self)
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This thesis proposes a general framework for equational logic programming, called categorybased equational logic by placing the general principles underlying the design of the programming language Eqlog and formulated by Goguen and Meseguer into an abstract form. This framework generalises equational deduction to an arbitrary category satisfying certain natural conditions; completeness is proved under a hypothesis of quantifier projectivity, using a semantic treatment that regards quantifiers as models rather than variables, and regards valuations as model morphisms rather than functions. This is used as a basis for a model theoretic categorybased approach to a paramodulationbased operational semantics for equational logic programming languages. Categorybased equational logic in conjunction with the theory of institutions is used to give mathematical foundations for modularisation in equational logic programming. We study the soundness and completeness problem for module imports i...
Improving Control in Functional Logic Program Specialization
, 1998
"... We have recently defined a framework for Narrowingdriven Partial Evaluation (NPE) of functional logic programs. This method is as powerful as partial deduction of logic programs and positive supercompilation of functional programs. Although it is possible to treat complex terms containing primitive ..."
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Cited by 18 (12 self)
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We have recently defined a framework for Narrowingdriven Partial Evaluation (NPE) of functional logic programs. This method is as powerful as partial deduction of logic programs and positive supercompilation of functional programs. Although it is possible to treat complex terms containing primitive functions (e.g. conjunctions or equations) in the NPE framework, its basic control mechanisms do not allow for effective polygenetic specialization of these complex expressions. We introduce a sophisticated unfolding rule endowed with a dynamic narrowing strategy which permits flexible scheduling of the elements (in conjunctions) which are reduced during specialization. We also present a novel abstraction operator which carefully considers primitive functions and is the key to achieving accurate polygenetic specialization. The abstraction operator extends some recent partitioning techniques defined in the framework of conjunctive partial deduction. We provide experimental results obtained from an implementation using the INDY system which demonstrate that the control refinements produce better specializations.