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42
Modelling gene expression data using dynamic bayesian networks
, 1999
"... Recently, there has been much interest in reverse engineering genetic networks from time series data. In this paper, we show that most of the proposed discrete time models — including the boolean network model [Kau93, SS96], the linear model of D’haeseleer et al. [DWFS99], and the nonlinear model of ..."
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Cited by 157 (1 self)
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Recently, there has been much interest in reverse engineering genetic networks from time series data. In this paper, we show that most of the proposed discrete time models — including the boolean network model [Kau93, SS96], the linear model of D’haeseleer et al. [DWFS99], and the nonlinear model of Weaver et al. [WWS99] — are all special cases of a general class of models called Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs). The advantages of DBNs include the ability to model stochasticity, to incorporate prior knowledge, and to handle hidden variables and missing data in a principled way. This paper provides a review of techniques for learning DBNs. Keywords: Genetic networks, boolean networks, Bayesian networks, neural networks, reverse engineering, machine learning. 1
Symbolic and neural learning algorithms: an experimental comparison
 Machine Learning
, 1991
"... Abstract Despite the fact that many symbolic and neural network (connectionist) learning algorithms address the same problem of learning from classified examples, very little is known regarding their comparative strengths and weaknesses. Experiments comparing the ID3 symbolic learning algorithm with ..."
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Cited by 99 (6 self)
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Abstract Despite the fact that many symbolic and neural network (connectionist) learning algorithms address the same problem of learning from classified examples, very little is known regarding their comparative strengths and weaknesses. Experiments comparing the ID3 symbolic learning algorithm with the perception and backpropagation neural learning algorithms have been performed using five large, realworld data sets. Overall, backpropagation performs slightly better than the other two algorithms in terms of classification accuracy on new examples, but takes much longer to train. Experimental results suggest that backpropagation can work significantly better on data sets containing numerical data. Also analyzed empirically are the effects of (1) the amount of training data, (2) imperfect training examples, and (3) the encoding of the desired outputs. Backpropagation occasionally outperforms the other two systems when given relatively small amounts of training data. It is slightly more accurate than ID3 when examples are noisy or incompletely specified. Finally, backpropagation more effectively utilizes a "distributed " output encoding.
Structure Learning in Conditional Probability Models via an Entropic Prior and Parameter Extinction
, 1998
"... We introduce an entropic prior for multinomial parameter estimation problems and solve for its maximum... ..."
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Cited by 66 (0 self)
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We introduce an entropic prior for multinomial parameter estimation problems and solve for its maximum...
Constructive Algorithms for Structure Learning in Feedforward Neural Networks for Regression Problems
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 1997
"... In this survey paper, we review the constructive algorithms for structure learning in feedforward neural networks for regression problems. The basic idea is to start with a small network, then add hidden units and weights incrementally until a satisfactory solution is found. By formulating the whole ..."
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Cited by 66 (2 self)
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In this survey paper, we review the constructive algorithms for structure learning in feedforward neural networks for regression problems. The basic idea is to start with a small network, then add hidden units and weights incrementally until a satisfactory solution is found. By formulating the whole problem as a state space search, we first describe the general issues in constructive algorithms, with special emphasis on the search strategy. A taxonomy, based on the differences in the state transition mapping, the training algorithm and the network architecture, is then presented. Keywords Constructive algorithm, structure learning, state space search, dynamic node creation, projection pursuit regression, cascadecorrelation, resourceallocating network, group method of data handling. I. Introduction A. Problems with Fixed Size Networks I N recent years, many neural network models have been proposed for pattern classification, function approximation and regression problems. Among...
Reinforcement Learning And Its Application To Control
, 1992
"... Learning control involves modifying a controller's behavior to improve its performance as measured by some predefined index of performance (IP). If control actions that improve performance as measured by the IP are known, supervised learning methods, or methods for learning from examples, can be us ..."
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Cited by 51 (2 self)
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Learning control involves modifying a controller's behavior to improve its performance as measured by some predefined index of performance (IP). If control actions that improve performance as measured by the IP are known, supervised learning methods, or methods for learning from examples, can be used to train the controller. But when such control actions are not known a priori, appropriate control behavior has to be inferred from observations of the IP. One can distinguish between two classes of methods for training controllers under such circumstances. Indirect methods involve constructing a model of the problem's IP and using the model to obtain training information for the controller. On the other hand, direct, or modelfree,...
Flat Minima
, 1997
"... this paper (available on the WorldWide Web; see our home pages) contains pseudocode of an efficient implementation. It is based on fast multiplication of the Hessian and a vector due to Pearlmutter (1994) and Mller (1993). Acknowledgments ..."
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Cited by 32 (14 self)
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this paper (available on the WorldWide Web; see our home pages) contains pseudocode of an efficient implementation. It is based on fast multiplication of the Hessian and a vector due to Pearlmutter (1994) and Mller (1993). Acknowledgments
Transferring Previously Learned BackPropagation Neural Networks To New Learning Tasks
, 1993
"... ..."
Constructive Feedforward Neural Networks for Regression Problems: A Survey
, 1995
"... In this paper, we review the procedures for constructing feedforward neural networks in regression problems. While standard backpropagation performs gradient descent only in the weight space of a network with fixed topology, constructive procedures start with a small network and then grow additiona ..."
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Cited by 21 (0 self)
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In this paper, we review the procedures for constructing feedforward neural networks in regression problems. While standard backpropagation performs gradient descent only in the weight space of a network with fixed topology, constructive procedures start with a small network and then grow additional hidden units and weights until a satisfactory solution is found. The constructive procedures are categorized according to the resultant network architecture and the learning algorithm for the network weights. The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Technical Report Series Department of Computer Science 1 Introduction In recent years, many neural network models have been proposed for pattern classification, function approximation and regression problems. Among them, the class of multilayer feedforward networks is perhaps the most popular. Standard backpropagation performs gradient descent only in the weight space of a network with fixed topology; this approach is analogous to ...
GAL: Networks that grow when they learn and shrink when they forget
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PATTERN RECOGNITION AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1991
"... Learning when limited to modification of some parameters has a limited scope; the capability to modify the system structure is also needed to get a wider range of the learnable. In the case of artificial neural networks, learning by iterative adjustment of synaptic weights can only succeed if t ..."
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Cited by 21 (4 self)
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Learning when limited to modification of some parameters has a limited scope; the capability to modify the system structure is also needed to get a wider range of the learnable. In the case of artificial neural networks, learning by iterative adjustment of synaptic weights can only succeed if the network designer predefines an appropriate network structure, i.e., number of hidden layers, units, and the size and shape of their receptive and projective fields. This paper advocates the view that the network structure should not, as usually done, be determined by trialanderror but should be computed by the learning algorithm. Incremental learning algorithms can modify the network structure by addition and/or removal of units and/or links. A survey of current connectionist literature is given on this line of thought. "Grow and Learn" (GAL) is a new algorithm that learns an association at oneshot due to being incremental and using a local representation. During the socalled...
An Anytime Approach To Connectionist Theory Refinement: Refining The Topologies Of KnowledgeBased Neural Networks
, 1995
"... Many scientific and industrial problems can be better understood by learning from samples of the task at hand. For this reason, the machine learning and statistics communities devote considerable research effort on generating inductivelearning algorithms that try to learn the true "concept" of a ta ..."
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Cited by 19 (3 self)
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Many scientific and industrial problems can be better understood by learning from samples of the task at hand. For this reason, the machine learning and statistics communities devote considerable research effort on generating inductivelearning algorithms that try to learn the true "concept" of a task from a set of its examples. Often times, however, one has additional resources readily available, but largely unused, that can improve the concept that these learning algorithms generate. These resources include available computer cycles, as well as prior knowledge describing what is currently known about the domain. Effective utilization of available computer time is important since for most domains an expert is willing to wait for weeks, or even months, if a learning system can produce an improved concept. Using prior knowledge is important since it can contain information not present in the current set of training examples. In this thesis, I present three "anytime" approaches to connec...