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94
Zeroes of Zeta Functions and Symmetry
, 1999
"... Hilbert and Polya suggested that there might be a natural spectral interpretation of the zeroes of the Riemann Zeta function. While at the time there was little evidence for this, today the evidence is quite convincing. Firstly, there are the “function field” analogues, that is zeta functions of cur ..."
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Cited by 103 (2 self)
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Hilbert and Polya suggested that there might be a natural spectral interpretation of the zeroes of the Riemann Zeta function. While at the time there was little evidence for this, today the evidence is quite convincing. Firstly, there are the “function field” analogues, that is zeta functions of curves over finite fields and their generalizations. For these a spectral interpretation for their zeroes exists in terms of eigenvalues of Frobenius on cohomology. Secondly, the developments, both theoretical and numerical, on the local spacing distributions between the high zeroes of the zeta function and its generalizations give striking evidence for such a spectral connection. Moreover, the lowlying zeroes of various families of zeta functions follow laws for the eigenvalue distributions of members of the classical groups. In this paper we review these developments. In order to present the material fluently, we do not proceed in chronological order of discovery. Also, in concentrating entirely on the subject matter of the title, we are ignoring the standard body of important work that has been done on the zeta function and Lfunctions.
Practical ZeroKnowledge Proofs: Giving Hints and Using Deficiencies
 JOURNAL OF CRYPTOLOGY
, 1994
"... New zeroknowledge proofs are given for some numbertheoretic problems. All of the problems are in NP, but the proofs given here are much more efficient than the previously known proofs. In addition, these proofs do not require the prover to be superpolynomial in power. A probabilistic polynomial t ..."
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Cited by 32 (0 self)
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New zeroknowledge proofs are given for some numbertheoretic problems. All of the problems are in NP, but the proofs given here are much more efficient than the previously known proofs. In addition, these proofs do not require the prover to be superpolynomial in power. A probabilistic polynomial time prover with the appropriate trapdoor knowledge is sufficient. The proofs are perfect or statistical zeroknowledge in all cases except one.
The cubic moment of central values of automorphic Lfunctions
 Ann. of Math
, 2000
"... 2. A review of classical modular forms 3. A review of Maass forms 4. Hecke Lfunctions ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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2. A review of classical modular forms 3. A review of Maass forms 4. Hecke Lfunctions
Harald Cramér and the distribution of prime numbers
 Scandanavian Actuarial J
, 1995
"... “It is evident that the primes are randomly distributed but, unfortunately, we don’t know what ‘random ’ means. ” — R. C. Vaughan (February 1990). After the first world war, Cramér began studying the distribution of prime numbers, guided by Riesz and MittagLeffler. His works then, and later in the ..."
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Cited by 20 (1 self)
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“It is evident that the primes are randomly distributed but, unfortunately, we don’t know what ‘random ’ means. ” — R. C. Vaughan (February 1990). After the first world war, Cramér began studying the distribution of prime numbers, guided by Riesz and MittagLeffler. His works then, and later in the midthirties, have had a profound influence on the way mathematicians think about the distribution of prime numbers. In this article, we shall focus on how Cramér’s ideas have directed and motivated research ever since. One can only fully appreciate the significance of Cramér’s contributions by viewing his work in the appropriate historical context. We shall begin our discussion with the ideas of the ancient Greeks, Euclid and Eratosthenes. Then we leap in time to the nineteenth century, to the computations and heuristics of Legendre and Gauss, the extraordinarily analytic insights of Dirichlet and Riemann, and the crowning glory of these ideas, the proof the “Prime Number Theorem ” by Hadamard and de la Vallée Poussin in 1896. We pick up again in the 1920’s with the questions asked by Hardy and Littlewood,
The determination of Gauss sums
 Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (New Series
, 1981
"... geometric series can show that P\ 2 e 2 ™ / p 0, where/? is any integer exceeding one. Suppose that we replace n by n k ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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geometric series can show that P\ 2 e 2 ™ / p 0, where/? is any integer exceeding one. Suppose that we replace n by n k
Tough Ramsey graphs without short cycles
 J. Algebraic Combinatorics
, 1995
"... A graph G is ttough if any induced subgraph of it with x> 1 connected components is obtained from G by deleting at least tx vertices. It is shown that for every t and g there are ttough graphs of girth strictly greater than g. This strengthens a recent result of Bauer, van den Heuvel and Schmeiche ..."
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Cited by 15 (2 self)
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A graph G is ttough if any induced subgraph of it with x> 1 connected components is obtained from G by deleting at least tx vertices. It is shown that for every t and g there are ttough graphs of girth strictly greater than g. This strengthens a recent result of Bauer, van den Heuvel and Schmeichel who proved the above for g = 3, and hence disproves in a strong sense a conjecture of Chvátal that there exists an absolute constant t0 so that every t0tough graph is pancyclic. The proof is by an explicit construction based on the tight relationship between the spectral properties of a regular graph and its expansion properties. A similar technique provides a simple construction of trianglefree graphs with independence number m on Ω(m 4/3) vertices, improving previously known explicit constructions by Erdős and by Chung, Cleve and Dagum.
Homomorphic PublicKey Cryptosystems and Encrypting Boolean Circuits
, 2003
"... In this paper homomorphic cryptosystems are designed for the first time over any finite group. Applying Barrington's construction we produce for any boolean circuit of the logarithmic depth its encrypted simulation of a polynomial size over an appropriate finitely generated group. ..."
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Cited by 14 (4 self)
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In this paper homomorphic cryptosystems are designed for the first time over any finite group. Applying Barrington's construction we produce for any boolean circuit of the logarithmic depth its encrypted simulation of a polynomial size over an appropriate finitely generated group.
Large Character Sums
 CHARACTERS AND THE POLYAVINOGRADOV THEOREM 29
"... A central problem in analytic number theory is to gain an understanding of character sums χ(n), n≤x ..."
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Cited by 14 (6 self)
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A central problem in analytic number theory is to gain an understanding of character sums χ(n), n≤x
Prime Number Races
 Amer. Math. Monthly
"... 1. INTRODUCTION. There’s nothing quite like a day at the races....The quickening of the pulse as the starter’s pistol sounds, the thrill when your favorite contestant speeds out into the lead (or the distress if another contestant dashes out ahead of yours), and the accompanying fear (or hope) that ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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1. INTRODUCTION. There’s nothing quite like a day at the races....The quickening of the pulse as the starter’s pistol sounds, the thrill when your favorite contestant speeds out into the lead (or the distress if another contestant dashes out ahead of yours), and the accompanying fear (or hope) that the leader might change. And what if the race is a marathon? Maybe one of the contestants will be far stronger than the others, taking