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121
Algorithms for the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem: A Survey
 DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... . The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, compute ..."
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Cited by 127 (3 self)
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. The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, computer architecture design, and computer network design. Traditional methods treat SAT as a discrete, constrained decision problem. In recent years, many optimization methods, parallel algorithms, and practical techniques have been developed for solving SAT. In this survey, we present a general framework (an algorithm space) that integrates existing SAT algorithms into a unified perspective. We describe sequential and parallel SAT algorithms including variable splitting, resolution, local search, global optimization, mathematical programming, and practical SAT algorithms. We give performance evaluation of some existing SAT algorithms. Finally, we provide a set of practical applications of the sat...
tps: A theorem proving system for classical type theory
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1996
"... This is a description of TPS, a theorem proving system for classical type theory (Church’s typed λcalculus). TPS has been designed to be a general research tool for manipulating wffs of first and higherorder logic, and searching for proofs of such wffs interactively or automatically, or in a comb ..."
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Cited by 71 (6 self)
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This is a description of TPS, a theorem proving system for classical type theory (Church’s typed λcalculus). TPS has been designed to be a general research tool for manipulating wffs of first and higherorder logic, and searching for proofs of such wffs interactively or automatically, or in a combination of these modes. An important feature of TPS is the ability to translate between expansion proofs and natural deduction proofs. Examples of theorems which TPS can prove completely automatically are given to illustrate certain aspects of TPS’s behavior and problems of theorem proving in higherorder logic. 7
Controlled Integrations of the Cut Rule into Connection Tableau Calculi
"... In this paper techniques are developed and compared which increase the inferential power of tableau systems for classical firstorder logic. The mechanisms are formulated in the framework of connection tableaux, which is an amalgamation of the connection method and the tableau calculus, and a genera ..."
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Cited by 61 (3 self)
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In this paper techniques are developed and compared which increase the inferential power of tableau systems for classical firstorder logic. The mechanisms are formulated in the framework of connection tableaux, which is an amalgamation of the connection method and the tableau calculus, and a generalization of model elimination. Since connection tableau calculi are among the weakest proof systems with respect to proof compactness, and the (backward) cut rule is not suitable for the firstorder case, we study alternative methods for shortening proofs. The techniques we investigate are the folding up and the folding down operation. Folding up represents an efficient way of supporting the basic calculus, which is topdown oriented, with lemmata derived in a bottomup manner. It is shown that both techniques can also be viewed as controlled integrations of the cut rule. In order to remedy the additional redundancy imported into tableau proof procedures by the new inference rules, we develop and apply an extension of the regularity condition on tableaux and the mechanism of antilemmata which realizes a subsumption concept on tableaux. Using the framework of the theorem prover SETHEO, we have implemented three new proof procedures which overcome the deductive weakness of cutfree tableau systems. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the systems with folding up over the cutfree variant and the one with folding down.
SemanticsBased Translation Methods for Modal Logics
, 1991
"... A general framework for translating logical formulae from one logic into another logic is presented. The framework is instantiated with two different approaches to translating modal logic formulae into predicate logic. The first one, the well known ‘relational’ translation makes the modal logic’s po ..."
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Cited by 40 (1 self)
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A general framework for translating logical formulae from one logic into another logic is presented. The framework is instantiated with two different approaches to translating modal logic formulae into predicate logic. The first one, the well known ‘relational’ translation makes the modal logic’s possible worlds structure explicit by introducing a distinguished predicate symbol to represent the accessibility relation. In the second approach, the ‘functional ’ translation method, paths in the possible worlds structure are represented by compositions of functions which map worlds to accessible worlds. On the syntactic level this means that every flexible symbol is parametrized with particular terms denoting whole paths from the initial world to the actual world. The ‘target logic’ for the translation is a firstorder manysorted logic with built in equality. Therefore the ‘source logic’ may also be firstorder manysorted with built in equality. Furthermore flexible function symbols are allowed. The modal operators may be parametrized with arbitrary terms and particular properties of the accessibility relation may be specified within the
Modality in Dialogue: Planning, Pragmatics and Computation
, 1998
"... Natural language generation (NLG) is first and foremost a reasoning task. In this reasoning, a system plans a communicative act that will signal key facts about the domain to the hearer. In generating action descriptions, this reasoning draws on characterizations both of the causal properties of the ..."
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Cited by 36 (9 self)
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Natural language generation (NLG) is first and foremost a reasoning task. In this reasoning, a system plans a communicative act that will signal key facts about the domain to the hearer. In generating action descriptions, this reasoning draws on characterizations both of the causal properties of the domain and the states of knowledge of the participants in the conversation. This dissertation shows how such characterizations can be specified declaratively and accessed efficiently in NLG. The heart of this dissertation is a study of logical statements about knowledge and action in modal logic. By investigating the prooftheory of modal logic from a logic programming point of view, I show how many kinds of modal statements can be seen as straightforward instructions for computationally manageable search, just as Prolog clauses can. These modal statements provide sufficient expressive resources for an NLG system to represent the effects of actions in the world or to model an addressee whose knowledge in some respects exceeds and in other respects falls short of its own. To illustrate the use of such statements, I describe how the SPUD sentence planner exploits a modal knowledge base to
An Overview Of Strategies For Neurosymbolic Integration
, 1995
"... This paper will give an overview of the various approaches to neurosymbolic integration. Roughly, these can be divided into two strategies: unified strategies aim at attaining neural and symbolic capabilities using neural networks alone, while hybrid strategies combine neural networks with symbolic ..."
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Cited by 33 (1 self)
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This paper will give an overview of the various approaches to neurosymbolic integration. Roughly, these can be divided into two strategies: unified strategies aim at attaining neural and symbolic capabilities using neural networks alone, while hybrid strategies combine neural networks with symbolic models such as expert systems, casebased reasoning systems, 2 Chapter 2 and decision trees. These two approaches form the main subtrees of the classification hierarchy depicted in Figure 1. Symbol Proc. Neuronal Unified approach Symbol Proc. hybrids Connectionist Localist Hybrid approach Combined L/D Neurosymbolic integration Functional Chainprocessing Translational Subprocessing hybrids Metaprocessing Distributed Coprocessing Figure 1 Classification of integrated neurosymbolic systems.
A connection based proof method for intuitionistic logic
 TH WORKSHOP ON THEOREM PROVING WITH ANALYTIC TABLEAUX AND RELATED METHODS, LNAI 918
, 1995
"... We present a proof method for intuitionistic logic based on Wallen’s matrix characterization. Our approach combines the connection calculus and the sequent calculus. The search technique is based on notions of paths and connections and thus avoids redundancies in the search space. During the proof s ..."
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Cited by 29 (19 self)
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We present a proof method for intuitionistic logic based on Wallen’s matrix characterization. Our approach combines the connection calculus and the sequent calculus. The search technique is based on notions of paths and connections and thus avoids redundancies in the search space. During the proof search the computed firstorder and intuitionistic substitutions are used to simultaneously construct a sequent proof which is more human oriented than the matrix proof. This allows to use our method within interactive proof environments. Furthermore we can consider local substitutions instead of global ones and treat substitutions occurring in different branches of the sequent proof independently. This reduces the number of extra copies of formulae to be considered.
Let's Plan It Deductively
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1997
"... The paper describes a transition logic, TL, and a deductive formalism for it. It shows how various important aspects (such as ramification, qualification, specificity, simultaneity, indeterminism etc.) involved in planning (or in reasoning about action and causality for that matter) can be modell ..."
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Cited by 28 (0 self)
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The paper describes a transition logic, TL, and a deductive formalism for it. It shows how various important aspects (such as ramification, qualification, specificity, simultaneity, indeterminism etc.) involved in planning (or in reasoning about action and causality for that matter) can be modelled in TL in a rather natural way. (The deductive formalism for) TL extends the linear connection method proposed earlier by the author by embedding the latter into classical logic, so that classical and resourcesensitive reasoning coexist within TL. The attraction of a logical and deductive approach to planning is emphasized and the state of automated deduction briefly described. 1 Introduction Artificial Intelligence (AI, or Intellectics [Bib92a]) aims at creating artificial (or computational [PMG98]) intelligence. Were there no natural intelligence, the sentence would be meaningless to us. Hence understanding natural intelligence by necessity has always been among the goals of Intel...
On transforming intuitionistic matrix proofs into standardsequent proofs
 TABLEAUX–95, LNAI 918
, 1995
"... We present a procedure transforming intuitionistic matrix proofs into proofs within the intuitionistic standard sequent calculus. The transformation is based on L. Wallen’s proof justifying his matrix characterization for the validity of intuitionistic formulae. Since this proof makes use of Fitting ..."
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Cited by 26 (15 self)
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We present a procedure transforming intuitionistic matrix proofs into proofs within the intuitionistic standard sequent calculus. The transformation is based on L. Wallen’s proof justifying his matrix characterization for the validity of intuitionistic formulae. Since this proof makes use of Fitting‘s nonstandard sequent calculus our procedure consists of two steps. First a nonstandard sequent proof will be extracted from a given matrix proof. Secondly we transform each nonstandard proof into a standard proof in a structure preserving way. To simplify the latter step we introduce an extended standard calculus which is shown to be sound and complete.
Connectionist Inference Systems
, 1991
"... This paper presents a survey of connectionist inference systems. ..."
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Cited by 25 (6 self)
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This paper presents a survey of connectionist inference systems.