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12
Splay trees, DavenportSchinzel sequences, and the deque conjecture
, 2007
"... We introduce a new technique to bound the asymptotic performance of splay trees. The basic idea is to transcribe, in an indirect fashion, the rotations performed by the splay tree as a DavenportSchinzel sequence S, none of whose subsequences are isomorphic to fixed forbidden subsequence. We direct ..."
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Cited by 15 (5 self)
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We introduce a new technique to bound the asymptotic performance of splay trees. The basic idea is to transcribe, in an indirect fashion, the rotations performed by the splay tree as a DavenportSchinzel sequence S, none of whose subsequences are isomorphic to fixed forbidden subsequence. We direct this technique towards Tarjan’s deque conjecture and prove that n deque operations require O(nα ∗ (n)) time, where α ∗ (n) is the minimum number of applications of the inverseAckermann function mapping n to a constant. We are optimistic that this approach could be directed towards other open conjectures on splay trees such as the traversal and split conjectures.
A unified access bound on comparisonbased dynamic dictionaries
 Theoretical Computer Science
"... We present a dynamic comparisonbased search structure that supports insertions, deletions, and searches within the unified bound. The unified bound specifies that it is quick to access an element that is near a recently accessed element. More precisely, if w(y) distinct elements have been accessed ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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We present a dynamic comparisonbased search structure that supports insertions, deletions, and searches within the unified bound. The unified bound specifies that it is quick to access an element that is near a recently accessed element. More precisely, if w(y) distinct elements have been accessed since the last access to element y, and d(x, y) denotes the rank distance between x and y among the current set of elements, then the amortized cost to access element x is O(miny log[w(y) + d(x, y) + 2]). This property generalizes the workingset and dynamicfinger properties of splay trees. Preprint submitted to Elsevier Science 31 January 2007 1
Dynamic Optimality for Skip Lists and BTrees
, 2008
"... Sleator and Tarjan [39] conjectured that splay trees are dynamically optimal binary search trees (BST). In this context, we study the skip list data structure introduced by Pugh [35]. We prove that for a class of skip lists that satisfy a weak balancing property, the workingset bound is a lower bou ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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Sleator and Tarjan [39] conjectured that splay trees are dynamically optimal binary search trees (BST). In this context, we study the skip list data structure introduced by Pugh [35]. We prove that for a class of skip lists that satisfy a weak balancing property, the workingset bound is a lower bound on the time to access any sequence. Furthermore, we develop a deterministic selfadjusting skip list whose running time matches the workingset bound, thereby achieving dynamic optimality in this class. Finally, we highlight the implications our bounds for skip lists have on multiway branching search trees such as Btrees, (ab)trees, and other variants as well as their binary tree representations. In particular, we show a selfadjusting Btree that is dynamically optimal both in internal and external memory.
Applications of forbidden 01 matrices to search tree and path compression based data structures
, 2009
"... In this paper we improve, reprove, and simplify a variety of theorems concerning the performance of data structures based on path compression and search trees. We apply a technique very familiar to computational geometers but still foreign to many researchers in (nongeometric) algorithms and data s ..."
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Cited by 5 (4 self)
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In this paper we improve, reprove, and simplify a variety of theorems concerning the performance of data structures based on path compression and search trees. We apply a technique very familiar to computational geometers but still foreign to many researchers in (nongeometric) algorithms and data structures, namely, to bound the complexity of an object via its forbidden substructures. To analyze an algorithm or data structure in the forbidden substructure framework one proceeds in three discrete steps. First, one transcribes the behavior of the algorithm as some combinatorial object M; for example, M may be a graph, sequence, permutation, matrix, set system, or tree. (The size of M should ideally be linear in the running time.) Second, one shows that M excludes some forbidden substructure P, and third, one bounds the size of any object avoiding this substructure. The power of this framework derives from the fact that M lies in a more pristine environment and that upper bounds on the size of a Pfree object M may be reused in different contexts. All of our proofs begin by transcribing the individual operations of a dynamic data structure
Dynamic optimality and multisplay trees
, 2004
"... The Dynamic Optimality Conjecture [ST85] states that splay trees are competitive (with a constant competitive factor) among the class of all binary search tree (BST) algorithms. Despite 20 years of research this conjecture is still unresolved. Recently Demaine et al. [DHIP04] suggested searching for ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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The Dynamic Optimality Conjecture [ST85] states that splay trees are competitive (with a constant competitive factor) among the class of all binary search tree (BST) algorithms. Despite 20 years of research this conjecture is still unresolved. Recently Demaine et al. [DHIP04] suggested searching for alternative algorithms which have small, but nonconstant competitive factors. They proposed tango, a BST algorithm which is nearly dynamically optimal – its competitive ratio is £¥¤§¦©¨���¦�¨����� � instead of a constant. Unfortunately, for many access patterns, tango is worse than other BST algorithms by a factor of ¦�¨���¦�¨��� �. In this paper we introduce multisplay trees, which can be viewed as a variant of splay trees. We prove the multisplay access lemma, which resembles the access lemma for splay trees. With different assignment of weights, this lemma allows us to prove various bounds on the performance of multisplay trees. Specifically, we prove that multisplay trees are £¥¤�¦�¨���¦©¨����� �competitive, and amortized £¥¤�¦�¨����� �. This is the first BST data structure to simultaneously achieve these two bounds. In addition, the algorithm is simple enough that we include code for its key parts. This work raises many open questions about the performance of multisplay trees. Does sequential access take linear time? (Our experiments indicate the answer is “yes”.) Are multisplay trees dynamically optimal? How do multisplay trees compare to splay trees? Specifically, are there sequences where one outperformes the other? What can be proved if we allow insertions and deletions in a multisplay tree? 1
Adaptive Binary Search Trees
, 2009
"... A ubiquitous problem in the field of algorithms and data structures is that of searching for an element from an ordered universe. The simple yet powerful binary search tree (BST) model provides a rich family of solutions to this problem. Although BSTs require Ω(lg n) time per operation in the wors ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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A ubiquitous problem in the field of algorithms and data structures is that of searching for an element from an ordered universe. The simple yet powerful binary search tree (BST) model provides a rich family of solutions to this problem. Although BSTs require Ω(lg n) time per operation in the worst case, various adaptive BST algorithms are capable of exploiting patterns in the sequence of queries to achieve tighter, inputsensitive, bounds that can be o(lg n) in many cases. This thesis furthers our understanding of what is achievable in the BST model along two directions. First, we make progress in improving instancespecific lower bounds in the BST model. In particular, we introduce a framework for generating lower bounds on the cost that any BST algorithm must pay to execute a query sequence,
Upper Bounds for Maximally Greedy Binary Search Trees
"... Abstract. At SODA 2009, Demaine et al. presented a novel connection between binary search trees (BSTs) and subsets of points on the plane. This connection was independently discovered by Derryberry et al. As part of their results, Demaine et al. considered GreedyFuture, an offline BST algorithm that ..."
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Abstract. At SODA 2009, Demaine et al. presented a novel connection between binary search trees (BSTs) and subsets of points on the plane. This connection was independently discovered by Derryberry et al. As part of their results, Demaine et al. considered GreedyFuture, an offline BST algorithm that greedily rearranges the search path to minimize the cost of future searches. They showed that GreedyFuture is actually an online algorithm in their geometric view, and that there is a way to turn GreedyFuture into an online BST algorithm with only a constant factor increase in total search cost. Demaine et al. conjectured this algorithm was dynamically optimal, but no upper bounds were given in their paper. We prove the first nontrivial upper bounds for the cost of search operations using GreedyFuture including giving an access lemma similar to that found in Sleator and Tarjan’s classic paper on splay trees. 1
A Selfadjusting Data Structure for Multidimensional Point Sets ⋆
"... Abstract. A data structure is said to be selfadjusting if it dynamically reorganizes itself to adapt to the pattern of accesses. Efficiency is typically measured in terms of amortized complexity, that is, the average running time of an access over an arbitrary sequence of accesses. The best known e ..."
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Abstract. A data structure is said to be selfadjusting if it dynamically reorganizes itself to adapt to the pattern of accesses. Efficiency is typically measured in terms of amortized complexity, that is, the average running time of an access over an arbitrary sequence of accesses. The best known example of such a data structure is Sleator and Tarjan’s splay tree. In this paper, we introduce a selfadjusting data structure for storing multidimensional point data. The data structure is based on a quadtreelike subdivision of space. Like a quadtree, the data structure implicitly encodes a subdivision of space into cells of constant combinatorial complexity. Each cell is either a quadtree box or the settheoretic difference of two such boxes. Similar to the traditional splay tree, accesses are based on an splaying operation that restructures the tree in order to bring an arbitrary internal node to the root of the tree. We show that many of the properties enjoyed by traditional splay trees can be generalized to this multidimensional version.
and the Deque Conjecture
"... We introduce a new technique to bound the asymptotic performance of splay trees. The basic idea is to transcribe, in an indirect fashion, the rotations performed by the splay tree as a DavenportSchinzel sequence, none of whose subsequences are isomorphic to a fixed forbidden subsequence. We direct ..."
Abstract
 Add to MetaCart
We introduce a new technique to bound the asymptotic performance of splay trees. The basic idea is to transcribe, in an indirect fashion, the rotations performed by the splay tree as a DavenportSchinzel sequence, none of whose subsequences are isomorphic to a fixed forbidden subsequence. We direct this technique towards Tarjan’s deque conjecture and prove that n deque operations take only O(nα ∗ (n)) time, where α ∗ (n) is the minimum number of applications of the inverseAckermann function mapping n to a constant. We are optimistic that this approach could be directed towards other open conjectures on splay trees such as the traversal and split conjectures. 1