Results 1  10
of
197
Factor Graphs and the SumProduct Algorithm
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple c ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1791 (69 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple computational rule, the sumproduct algorithm operates in factor graphs to computeeither exactly or approximatelyvarious marginal functions by distributed messagepassing in the graph. A wide variety of algorithms developed in artificial intelligence, signal processing, and digital communications can be derived as specific instances of the sumproduct algorithm, including the forward/backward algorithm, the Viterbi algorithm, the iterative "turbo" decoding algorithm, Pearl's belief propagation algorithm for Bayesian networks, the Kalman filter, and certain fast Fourier transform algorithms.
Mining the Network Value of Customers
 In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 2002
"... One of the major applications of data mining is in helping companies determine which potential customers to market to. If the expected pro t from a customer is greater than the cost of marketing to her, the marketing action for that customer is executed. So far, work in this area has considered only ..."
Abstract

Cited by 568 (11 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
One of the major applications of data mining is in helping companies determine which potential customers to market to. If the expected pro t from a customer is greater than the cost of marketing to her, the marketing action for that customer is executed. So far, work in this area has considered only the intrinsic value of the customer (i.e, the expected pro t from sales to her). We propose to model also the customer's network value: the expected pro t from sales to other customers she may inuence to buy, the customers those may inuence, and so on recursively. Instead of viewing a market as a set of independent entities, we view it as a social network and model it as a Markov random eld. We show the advantages of this approach using a social network mined from a collaborative ltering database. Marketing that exploits the network value of customersalso known as viral marketingcan be extremely eective, but is still a black art. Our work can be viewed as a step towards providing a more solid foundation for it, taking advantage of the availability of large relevant databases. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.2.8 [Database Management]: Database Applications data mining
Turbo decoding as an instance of Pearl’s belief propagation algorithm
 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
, 1998
"... Abstract—In this paper, we will describe the close connection between the now celebrated iterative turbo decoding algorithm of Berrou et al. and an algorithm that has been well known in the artificial intelligence community for a decade, but which is relatively unknown to information theorists: Pear ..."
Abstract

Cited by 404 (16 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Abstract—In this paper, we will describe the close connection between the now celebrated iterative turbo decoding algorithm of Berrou et al. and an algorithm that has been well known in the artificial intelligence community for a decade, but which is relatively unknown to information theorists: Pearl’s belief propagation algorithm. We shall see that if Pearl’s algorithm is applied to the “belief network ” of a parallel concatenation of two or more codes, the turbo decoding algorithm immediately results. Unfortunately, however, this belief diagram has loops, and Pearl only proved that his algorithm works when there are no loops, so an explanation of the excellent experimental performance of turbo decoding is still lacking. However, we shall also show that Pearl’s algorithm can be used to routinely derive previously known iterative, but suboptimal, decoding algorithms for a number of other errorcontrol systems, including Gallager’s
A generalized Gaussian image model for edgepreserving MAP estimation
 IEEE Trans. on Image Processing
, 1993
"... Absfrucf We present a Markov random field model which allows realistic edge modeling while providing stable maximum a posteriori MAP solutions. The proposed model, which we refer to as a generalized Gaussian Markov random field (GGMRF), is named for its similarity to the generalized Gaussian distri ..."
Abstract

Cited by 301 (37 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Absfrucf We present a Markov random field model which allows realistic edge modeling while providing stable maximum a posteriori MAP solutions. The proposed model, which we refer to as a generalized Gaussian Markov random field (GGMRF), is named for its similarity to the generalized Gaussian distribution used in robust detection and estimation. The model satisifies several desirable analytical and computational properties for MAP estimation, including continuous dependence of the estimate on the data, invariance of the character of solutions to scaling of data, and a solution which lies at the unique global minimum of the U posteriori loglikeihood function. The GGMRF is demonstrated to be useful for image reconstruction in lowdosage transmission tomography. I.
A local update strategy for iterative reconstruction from projections
 IEEE Tr. Sig. Proc
, 1993
"... Iterative methods for statisticallybased reconstruction from projections are computationally costly relative to convolution backprojection, but allow useful image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data. We present a method for Bayesian reconstruction which relies on updates of single pixel value ..."
Abstract

Cited by 153 (34 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Iterative methods for statisticallybased reconstruction from projections are computationally costly relative to convolution backprojection, but allow useful image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data. We present a method for Bayesian reconstruction which relies on updates of single pixel values, rather than the entire image, at each iteration. The technique is similar to GaussSeidel (GS) iteration for the solution of differential equations on finite grids. The computational cost per iteration of the GS approach is found to be approximately equal to that of gradient methods. For continuously valued images, GS is found to have significantly better convergence at modes representing high spatial frequencies. In addition, GS is well suited to segmentation when the image is constrained to be discretely valued. We demonstrate that Bayesian segmentation using GS iteration produces useful estimates at much lower signaltonoise ratios than required for continuously valued reconstruction. This paper includes analysis of the convergence properties of gradient ascent and GS for reconstruction from integral projections, and simulations of both maximumlikelihood and maximum a posteriori cases.
Iterative Decoding of Compound Codes by Probability Propagation in Graphical Models
 IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm
, 1998
"... Abstract—We present a unified graphical model framework for describing compound codes and deriving iterative decoding algorithms. After reviewing a variety of graphical models (Markov random fields, Tanner graphs, and Bayesian networks), we derive a general distributed marginalization algorithm for ..."
Abstract

Cited by 139 (12 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Abstract—We present a unified graphical model framework for describing compound codes and deriving iterative decoding algorithms. After reviewing a variety of graphical models (Markov random fields, Tanner graphs, and Bayesian networks), we derive a general distributed marginalization algorithm for functions described by factor graphs. From this general algorithm, Pearl’s belief propagation algorithm is easily derived as a special case. We point out that recently developed iterative decoding algorithms for various codes, including “turbo decoding ” of parallelconcatenated convolutional codes, may be viewed as probability propagation in a graphical model of the code. We focus on Bayesian network descriptions of codes, which give a natural input/state/output/channel description of a code and channel, and we indicate how iterative decoders can be developed for paralleland serially concatenated coding systems, product codes, and lowdensity paritycheck codes. Index Terms — Concatenated coding, decoding, graph theory, iterative methods, product codes.
Nonergodic Economic Growth
 Review of Economic Studies
, 1993
"... helpful conrients. I am especially grateful to Russell Cooper, ..."
Abstract

Cited by 126 (7 self)
 Add to MetaCart
helpful conrients. I am especially grateful to Russell Cooper,
Adaptive Load Balancing: A Study in MultiAgent Learning
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1995
"... We study the process of multiagent reinforcement learning in the context of load balancing in a distributed system, without use of either central coordination or explicit communication. We first define a precise framework in which to study adaptive load balancing, important features of which are it ..."
Abstract

Cited by 94 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
We study the process of multiagent reinforcement learning in the context of load balancing in a distributed system, without use of either central coordination or explicit communication. We first define a precise framework in which to study adaptive load balancing, important features of which are its stochastic nature and the purely local information available to individual agents. Given this framework, we show illuminating results on the interplay between basic adaptive behavior parameters and their effect on system efficiency. We then investigate the properties of adaptive load balancing in heterogeneous populations, and address the issue of exploration vs. exploitation in that context. Finally, we show that naive use of communication may not improve, and might even harm system efficiency. 1. Introduction This article investigates multiagent reinforcement learning in the context of a concrete problem of undisputed importance  load balancing. Real life provides us with many exampl...