Results 1  10
of
724
Interval Analysis For Computer Graphics
 Computer Graphics
, 1992
"... This paper discusses how interval analysis can be used to solve a wide variety of problems in computer graphics. These problems include ray tracing, interference detection, polygonal decomposition of parametric surfaces, and CSG on solids bounded by parametric surfaces. Only two basic algorithms are ..."
Abstract

Cited by 154 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
This paper discusses how interval analysis can be used to solve a wide variety of problems in computer graphics. These problems include ray tracing, interference detection, polygonal decomposition of parametric surfaces, and CSG on solids bounded by parametric surfaces. Only two basic algorithms are required: SOLVE, which computes solutions to a system of constraints, and MINIMIZE, which computes the global minimum of a function, subject to a system of constraints. We present algorithms for SOLVE and MINIMIZE using interval analysis as the conceptual framework. Crucial to the technique is the creation of "inclusion functions" for each constraint and function to be minimized. Inclusion functions compute a bound on the range of a function, given a similar bound on its domain, allowing a branch and bound approach to constraint solution and constrained minimization. Inclusion functions also allow the MINIMIZE algorithm to compute global rather than local minima, unlike many other numerica...
Solving Polynomial Systems Using a Branch and Prune Approach
 SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis
, 1997
"... This paper presents Newton, a branch & prune algorithm to find all isolated solutions of a system of polynomial constraints. Newton can be characterized as a global search method which uses intervals for numerical correctness and for pruning the search space early. The pruning in Newton consists ..."
Abstract

Cited by 112 (7 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
This paper presents Newton, a branch & prune algorithm to find all isolated solutions of a system of polynomial constraints. Newton can be characterized as a global search method which uses intervals for numerical correctness and for pruning the search space early. The pruning in Newton consists in enforcing at each node of the search tree a unique local consistency condition, called boxconsistency, which approximates the notion of arcconsistency wellknown in artificial intelligence. Boxconsistency is parametrized by an interval extension of the constraint and can be instantiated to produce the HansenSegupta's narrowing operator (used in interval methods) as well as new operators which are more effective when the computation is far from a solution. Newton has been evaluated on a variety of benchmarks from kinematics, chemistry, combustion, economics, and mechanics. On these benchmarks, it outperforms the interval methods we are aware of and compares well with stateoftheart continuation methods. Limitations of Newton (e.g., a sensitivity to the size of the initial intervals on some problems) are also discussed. Of particular interest is the mathematical and programming simplicity of the method.
A Rigorous ODE Solver and Smale’s 14th Problem
 Found. Comp. Math
"... Abstract. We present an algorithm for computing rigorous solutions to a large class of ordinary differential equations. The main algorithm is based on a partitioning process and the use of interval arithmetic with directed rounding. As an application, we prove that the Lorenz equations support a str ..."
Abstract

Cited by 104 (10 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Abstract. We present an algorithm for computing rigorous solutions to a large class of ordinary differential equations. The main algorithm is based on a partitioning process and the use of interval arithmetic with directed rounding. As an application, we prove that the Lorenz equations support a strange attractor, as conjectured by Edward Lorenz in 1963. This conjecture was recently listed by Steven Smale as one of several challenging problems for the twentyfirst century. We also prove that the attractor is robust, i.e., it persists under small perturbations of the coefficients in the underlying differential equations. Furthermore, the flow of the equations admits a unique SRB measure, whose support coincides with the attractor. The proof is based on a combination of normal form theory and rigorous computations. 1.
Affine Arithmetic and its Applications to Computer Graphics
, 1993
"... We describe a new method for numeric computations, which we call affine arithmetic (AA). This model is similar to standard interval arithmetic, to the extent that it automatically keeps track of rounding and truncation errors for each computed value. However, by taking into account correlations betw ..."
Abstract

Cited by 81 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We describe a new method for numeric computations, which we call affine arithmetic (AA). This model is similar to standard interval arithmetic, to the extent that it automatically keeps track of rounding and truncation errors for each computed value. However, by taking into account correlations between operands and subformulas, AA is able to provide much tighter bounds for the computed quantities, with errors that are approximately quadratic in the uncertainty of the input variables. We also describe two applications of AA to computer graphics problems, where this feature is particularly valuable: namely, ray tracing and the construction of octrees for implicit surfaces.
Combining edges and points for interactive highquality rendering
 ACM Trans. Graph
, 2003
"... This paper presents a new interactive rendering and display technique for complex scenes with expensive shading, such as global illumination. Our approach combines sparsely sampled shading (points) and analytically computed discontinuities (edges) to interactively generate highquality images. The e ..."
Abstract

Cited by 76 (8 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper presents a new interactive rendering and display technique for complex scenes with expensive shading, such as global illumination. Our approach combines sparsely sampled shading (points) and analytically computed discontinuities (edges) to interactively generate highquality images. The edgeandpoint image is a new compact representation that combines edges and points such that fast, tabledriven interpolation of pixel shading from nearby point samples is possible, while respecting discontinuities. The edgeandpoint renderer is extensible, permitting the use of arbitrary shaders to collect shading samples. Shading discontinuities, such as silhouettes and shadow edges, are found at interactive rates. Our software implementation supports interactive navigation and object manipulation in scenes that include expensive lighting effects (such as global illumination) and geometrically complex objects. For interactive rendering we show that highquality images of these scenes can be rendered at 8–14 frames per second on a desktop PC: a speedup of 20–60 over a ray tracer computing a single sample per pixel.
Interval Methods for MultiPoint Collisions between TimeDependent Curved Surfaces
 Computer Graphics
, 1993
"... We present an efficient and robust algorithm for finding points of collision between timedependent parametric and implicit surfaces. The algorithm detects simultaneous collisions at multiple points of contact. When the regions of contact form curves or surfaces, it returns a finite set of points un ..."
Abstract

Cited by 69 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
We present an efficient and robust algorithm for finding points of collision between timedependent parametric and implicit surfaces. The algorithm detects simultaneous collisions at multiple points of contact. When the regions of contact form curves or surfaces, it returns a finite set of points uniformly distributed over each contact region. Collisions can be computed for a very general class of surfaces: those for which inclusion functions can be constructed. Included in this set are the familiar kinds of surfaces and time behaviors encountered in computer graphics. We use a new interval approach for constrained minimization to detect collisions, and a tangency condition to reduce the dimensionality of the search space. These approaches make interval methods practical for multipoint collisions between complex surfaces. An interval Newton method based on the solution of the interval linear equation is used to speed convergence to the collision time and location. This method is mor...
Illumination from Curved Reflectors
, 1992
"... A technique is presented to compute the reflected illumination from curved mirror surfaces onto other surfaces. In accordance with Fermat's principle, this is equivalent to finding extremal paths from the light source to the visible surface via the mirrors. Once pathways of illumination are fou ..."
Abstract

Cited by 64 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A technique is presented to compute the reflected illumination from curved mirror surfaces onto other surfaces. In accordance with Fermat's principle, this is equivalent to finding extremal paths from the light source to the visible surface via the mirrors. Once pathways of illumination are found, irradiance is computed from the Gaussian curvature of the geometrical wavefront. Techniques from optics, differential geometry and interval analysis are applied to solve these problems. CR Categories and Subject Descriptions: I.3.3 [ Computer Graphics ]: Picture/Image Generation; I.3.7 [ Computer Graphics ]: ThreeDimensional Graphics and Realism General Terms: Algorithms Additional Keywords and Phrases: Caustics, Differential Geometry, Geometrical Optics, Global Illumination, Interval Arithmetic, Ray Tracing, Wavefronts 1. Introduction Ray tracing provides a straightforward means for synthesizing realistic images on the computer. A scene is first modeled, usually by a collection of implici...
Computations with Imprecise Parameters in Engineering Design: Background and Theory
 ASME JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS, TRANSMISSIONS, AND AUTOMATION IN DESIGN
, 1989
"... A technique to perform design calculations on imprecise representations of parameters has been developed and is presented. The level of imprecision in the description of design elements is typically high in the preliminary phase of engineering design. This imprecision is represented using the fuzzy ..."
Abstract

Cited by 61 (19 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A technique to perform design calculations on imprecise representations of parameters has been developed and is presented. The level of imprecision in the description of design elements is typically high in the preliminary phase of engineering design. This imprecision is represented using the fuzzy calculus. Calculations can be performed using this method, to produce (imprecise) performance parameters from imprecise (input) design parameters. The Fuzzy Weighted Average technique is used to perform these calculations. A new metric, called the γlevel measure, is introduced to determine the relative coupling between imprecise inputs and outputs. The background and theory supporting this approach are presented, along with one example.