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A Framework for Defining Logics
 JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTING MACHINERY
, 1993
"... The Edinburgh Logical Framework (LF) provides a means to define (or present) logics. It is based on a general treatment of syntax, rules, and proofs by means of a typed calculus with dependent types. Syntax is treated in a style similar to, but more general than, MartinLof's system of ariti ..."
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Cited by 807 (45 self)
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The Edinburgh Logical Framework (LF) provides a means to define (or present) logics. It is based on a general treatment of syntax, rules, and proofs by means of a typed calculus with dependent types. Syntax is treated in a style similar to, but more general than, MartinLof's system of arities. The treatment of rules and proofs focuses on his notion of a judgement. Logics are represented in LF via a new principle, the judgements as types principle, whereby each judgement is identified with the type of its proofs. This allows for a smooth treatment of discharge and variable occurrence conditions and leads to a uniform treatment of rules and proofs whereby rules are viewed as proofs of higherorder judgements and proof checking is reduced to type checking. The practical benefit of our treatment of formal systems is that logicindependent tools such as proof editors and proof checkers can be constructed.
ECC, an Extended Calculus of Constructions
, 1989
"... We present a higherorder calculus ECC which can be seen as an extension of the calculus of constructions [CH88] by adding strong sum types and a fully cumulative type hierarchy. ECC turns out to be rather expressive so that mathematical theories can be abstractly described and abstract mathematics ..."
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We present a higherorder calculus ECC which can be seen as an extension of the calculus of constructions [CH88] by adding strong sum types and a fully cumulative type hierarchy. ECC turns out to be rather expressive so that mathematical theories can be abstractly described and abstract mathematics may be adequately formalized. It is shown that ECC is strongly normalizing and has other nice prooftheoretic properties. An !\GammaSet (realizability) model is described to show how the essential properties of the calculus can be captured settheoretically.
Programming with Intersection Types and Bounded Polymorphism
, 1991
"... representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government. ..."
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representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government.
Inductively Defined Types in the Calculus of Constructions
 IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH CONFERENCE ON THE MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF PROGRAMMING SEMANTICS. SPRINGER VERLAG LNCS
, 1989
"... We define the notion of an inductively defined type in the Calculus of Constructions and show how inductively defined types can be represented by closed types. We show that all primitive recursive functionals over these inductively defined types are also representable. This generalizes work by Böhm ..."
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Cited by 47 (3 self)
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We define the notion of an inductively defined type in the Calculus of Constructions and show how inductively defined types can be represented by closed types. We show that all primitive recursive functionals over these inductively defined types are also representable. This generalizes work by Böhm & Berarducci on synthesis of functions on term algebras in the secondorder polymorphiccalculus (F2). We give several applications of this generalization, including a representation of F2programs in F3, along with a definition of functions reify, reflect, and eval for F2 in F3. We also show how to define induction over inductively defined types and sketch some results that show that the extension of the Calculus of Construction by induction principles does not alter the set of functions in its computational fragment, F!. This is because a proof by induction can be realized by primitive recursion, which is already de nable in F!.
Constructions, Inductive Types and Strong Normalization
, 1993
"... This thesis contains an investigation of Coquand's Calculus of Constructions, a basic impredicative Type Theory. We review syntactic properties of the calculus, in particular decidability of equality and typechecking, based on the equalityasjudgement presentation. We present a settheoretic ..."
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Cited by 35 (3 self)
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This thesis contains an investigation of Coquand's Calculus of Constructions, a basic impredicative Type Theory. We review syntactic properties of the calculus, in particular decidability of equality and typechecking, based on the equalityasjudgement presentation. We present a settheoretic notion of model, CCstructures, and use this to give a new strong normalization proof based on a modification of the realizability interpretation. An extension of the core calculus by inductive types is investigated and we show, using the example of infinite trees, how the realizability semantics and the strong normalization argument can be extended to nonalgebraic inductive types. We emphasize that our interpretation is sound for large eliminations, e.g. allows the definition of sets by recursion. Finally we apply the extended calculus to a nontrivial problem: the formalization of the strong normalization argument for Girard's System F. This formal proof has been developed and checked using the...
Type Checking with Universes
, 1991
"... Various formulations of constructive type theories have been proposed to serve as the basis for machineassisted proof and as a theoretical basis for studying programming languages. Many of these calculi include a cumulative hierarchy of "universes," each a type of types closed under a ..."
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Cited by 33 (6 self)
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Various formulations of constructive type theories have been proposed to serve as the basis for machineassisted proof and as a theoretical basis for studying programming languages. Many of these calculi include a cumulative hierarchy of "universes," each a type of types closed under a collection of typeforming operations. Universes are of interest for a variety of reasons, some philosophical (predicative vs. impredicative type theories), some theoretical (limitations on the closure properties of type theories), and some practical (to achieve some of the advantages of a type of all types without sacrificing consistency.) The Generalized Calculus of Constructions (CC ! ) is a formal theory of types that includes such a hierarchy of universes. Although essential to the formalization of constructive mathematics, universes are tedious to use in practice, for one is required to make specific choices of universe levels and to ensure that all choices are consistent. In this pa...
Alpaca: extensible authorization for distributed services
 In 14th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security
, 2007
"... Traditional Public Key Infrastructures (PKI) have not lived up to their promise because there are too many ways to define PKIs, too many cryptographic primitives to build them with, and too many administrative domains with incompatible roots of trust. Alpaca is an authentication and authorization fr ..."
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Traditional Public Key Infrastructures (PKI) have not lived up to their promise because there are too many ways to define PKIs, too many cryptographic primitives to build them with, and too many administrative domains with incompatible roots of trust. Alpaca is an authentication and authorization framework that embraces PKI diversity by enabling one PKI to “plug in ” another PKI’s credentials and cryptographic algorithms, allowing users of the latter to authenticate themselves to services using the former using their existing, unmodified certificates. Alpaca builds on ProofCarrying Authorization (PCA) [8], expressing a credential as an explicit proof of a logical claim. Alpaca generalizes PCA to express not only delegation policies but also the cryptographic primitives, credential formats, and namespace structure needed to use foreign credentials directly. To achieve this goal, Alpaca introduces a method of creating and naming new principals which behave according to arbitrary rules, a modular approach to logical axioms, and a domainspecific language specialized for reasoning about authentication. We have implemented Alpaca as a Python module that assists applications in generating proofs (e.g., in a client requesting access to a resource), and in verifying those proofs via a compact 800line TCB (e.g., in a server providing that resource). We present examples demonstrating Alpaca’s extensibility in scenarios involving interorganization PKI interoperability and secure remote PKI upgrade.
Pure Type Systems with Definitions
, 1993
"... In this paper, an extension of Pure Type Systems (PTS's) with definitions is presented. We prove this extension preserves many of the properties of PTS's. The main result is a proof that for many PTS's, including the Calculus of Constructions, this extension preserves strong normalisa ..."
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In this paper, an extension of Pure Type Systems (PTS's) with definitions is presented. We prove this extension preserves many of the properties of PTS's. The main result is a proof that for many PTS's, including the Calculus of Constructions, this extension preserves strong normalisation.
Higher Order Logic
 In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming
, 1994
"... Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Definin ..."
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Cited by 24 (0 self)
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Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Defining data types : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.4 Describing processes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.5 Expressing convergence using second order validity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 2.6 Truth definitions: the analytical hierarchy : : : : : : : : 10 2.7 Inductive definitions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 3 Canonical semantics of higher order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 3.1 Tarskian semantics of second order logic : : : : : : : : : 15 3.2 Function and re
A Proof of Strong Normalization For the Theory of Constructions Using a KripkeLike Interpretation
 In Workshop on Logical FrameworksPreliminary Proceedings
, 1990
"... . We give a proof that all terms that typecheck in the theory of constructions are strongly normalizing (under fireduction). The main novelty of this proof is that it uses a "Kripkelike" interpretation of the types and kinds, and that it does not use infinite contexts. We explore some c ..."
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. We give a proof that all terms that typecheck in the theory of constructions are strongly normalizing (under fireduction). The main novelty of this proof is that it uses a "Kripkelike" interpretation of the types and kinds, and that it does not use infinite contexts. We explore some consequences of strong normalization, consistency and decidability of typechecking. We also show that our proof yields another proof of strong normalization for LF (under fireduction), using the reducibility method. 1 Introduction We give a proof that all terms that typecheck in the theory of constructions are strongly normalizing (under fireduction). The main novelty of this proof is that it uses a "Kripkelike " interpretation of the types and kinds, and that it does not use infinite contexts. The idea used for avoiding infinite contexts comes from Coquand's thesis [Coq85]. Our proof yields as a corollary another proof of strong normalization (under fireduction) of wellformed terms of LF . In f...