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32
In Search of an Easy Witness: Exponential Time vs. Probabilistic Polynomial Time
"... Restricting the search space f0; 1g to the set of truth tables of "easy" Boolean functions on log n variables, as well as using some known hardnessrandomness tradeoffs, we establish a number of results relating the complexity of exponentialtime and probabilistic polynomialtime complexity cla ..."
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Cited by 55 (5 self)
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Restricting the search space f0; 1g to the set of truth tables of "easy" Boolean functions on log n variables, as well as using some known hardnessrandomness tradeoffs, we establish a number of results relating the complexity of exponentialtime and probabilistic polynomialtime complexity classes. In particular, we show that NEXP ae P=poly , NEXP = MA; this can be interpreted as saying that no derandomization of MA (and, hence, of promiseBPP) is possible unless NEXP contains a hard Boolean function. We also prove several downward closure results for ZPP, RP, BPP, and MA; e.g., we show EXP = BPP , EE = BPE, where EE is the doubleexponential time class and BPE is the exponentialtime analogue of BPP.
An oracle builder’s toolkit
, 2002
"... We show how to use various notions of genericity as tools in oracle creation. In particular, 1. we give an abstract definition of genericity that encompasses a large collection of different generic notions; 2. we consider a new complexity class AWPP, which contains BQP (quantum polynomial time), and ..."
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Cited by 47 (10 self)
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We show how to use various notions of genericity as tools in oracle creation. In particular, 1. we give an abstract definition of genericity that encompasses a large collection of different generic notions; 2. we consider a new complexity class AWPP, which contains BQP (quantum polynomial time), and infer several strong collapses relative to SPgenerics; 3. we show that under additional assumptions these collapses also occur relative to Cohen generics; 4. we show that relative to SPgenerics, ULIN ∩ coULIN ̸ ⊆ DTIME(n k) for any k, where ULIN is unambiguous linear time, despite the fact that UP ∪ (NP ∩ coNP) ⊆ P relative to these generics; 5. we show that there is an oracle relative to which NP/1∩coNP/1 ̸ ⊆ (NP∩coNP)/poly; and 6. we use a specialized notion of genericity to create an oracle relative to which NP BPP ̸ ⊇ MA.
Algebrization: A new barrier in complexity theory
 MIT Theory of Computing Colloquium
, 2007
"... Any proof of P � = NP will have to overcome two barriers: relativization and natural proofs. Yet over the last decade, we have seen circuit lower bounds (for example, that PP does not have linearsize circuits) that overcome both barriers simultaneously. So the question arises of whether there is a ..."
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Cited by 30 (2 self)
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Any proof of P � = NP will have to overcome two barriers: relativization and natural proofs. Yet over the last decade, we have seen circuit lower bounds (for example, that PP does not have linearsize circuits) that overcome both barriers simultaneously. So the question arises of whether there is a third barrier to progress on the central questions in complexity theory. In this paper we present such a barrier, which we call algebraic relativization or algebrization. The idea is that, when we relativize some complexity class inclusion, we should give the simulating machine access not only to an oracle A, but also to a lowdegree extension of A over a finite field or ring. We systematically go through basic results and open problems in complexity theory to delineate the power of the new algebrization barrier. First, we show that all known nonrelativizing results based on arithmetization—both inclusions such as IP = PSPACE and MIP = NEXP, and separations such as MAEXP � ⊂ P/poly —do indeed algebrize. Second, we show that almost all of the major open problems—including P versus NP, P versus RP, and NEXP versus P/poly—will require nonalgebrizing techniques. In some cases algebrization seems to explain exactly why progress stopped where it did: for example, why we have superlinear circuit lower bounds for PromiseMA but not for NP. Our second set of results follows from lower bounds in a new model of algebraic query complexity, which we introduce in this paper and which is interesting in its own right. Some of our lower bounds use direct combinatorial and algebraic arguments, while others stem from a surprising connection between our model and communication complexity. Using this connection, we are also able to give an MAprotocol for the Inner Product function with O ( √ n log n) communication (essentially matching a lower bound of Klauck), as well as a communication complexity conjecture whose truth would imply NL � = NP. 1
SuperPolynomial versus HalfExponential Circuit Size in the Exponential Hierarchy
, 1999
"... . Circuit size lower bounds were previously established for functions in p 2 , ZPP NP , exp 2 , ZPEXP NP and MA exp . We ask the general question: Given a time bound t(n). What is the best circuit size lower bound that can be currently shown for the classes MATIME[t(n)], ZPTIME NP [t(n ..."
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Cited by 17 (5 self)
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. Circuit size lower bounds were previously established for functions in p 2 , ZPP NP , exp 2 , ZPEXP NP and MA exp . We ask the general question: Given a time bound t(n). What is the best circuit size lower bound that can be currently shown for the classes MATIME[t(n)], ZPTIME NP [t(n)]; . . .? For the classes MA exp , ZPEXP NP and exp 2 , the answer turns out to be \halfexponential". Informally, a function f is said to be halfexponential when f f is exponential. Such functions were constructed by Szekeres. 1 Introduction One main issue of complexity theory is how powerful nonuniform (e.g. circuit based) computation is, compared to uniform (machine based) computation. In particular, a 64K dollar question is whether exponential time has polynomial size circuits. This being a challenging open question, a series of papers have looked at circuit size of functions further up the exponential hierarchy. In the early eighties, Kannan [11] established that there is ...
Nonuniform ACC circuit lower bounds
, 2010
"... The class ACC consists of circuit families with constant depth over unbounded fanin AND, OR, NOT, and MODm gates, where m> 1 is an arbitrary constant. We prove: • NTIME[2 n] does not have nonuniform ACC circuits of polynomial size. The size lower bound can be slightly strengthened to quasipolynom ..."
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Cited by 16 (4 self)
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The class ACC consists of circuit families with constant depth over unbounded fanin AND, OR, NOT, and MODm gates, where m> 1 is an arbitrary constant. We prove: • NTIME[2 n] does not have nonuniform ACC circuits of polynomial size. The size lower bound can be slightly strengthened to quasipolynomials and other less natural functions. • ENP, the class of languages recognized in 2O(n) time with an NP oracle, doesn’t have nonuniform ACC circuits of 2no(1) size. The lower bound gives an exponential sizedepth tradeoff: for every d there is a δ> 0 such that ENP doesn’t have depthd ACC circuits of size 2nδ. Previously, it was not known whether EXP NP had depth3 polynomial size circuits made out of only MOD6 gates. The highlevel strategy is to design faster algorithms for the circuit satisfiability problem over ACC circuits, then prove that such algorithms entail the above lower bounds. The algorithm combines known properties of ACC with fast rectangular matrix multiplication and dynamic programming, while the second step requires a subtle strengthening of the author’s prior work [STOC’10]. Supported by the Josef Raviv Memorial Fellowship.
Circuit lower bounds for MerlinArthur classes
 In Proc. ACM STOC
, 2007
"... We show that for each k> 0, MA/1 (MA with 1 bit of advice) doesn’t have circuits of size nk. This implies the first superlinear circuit lower bounds for the promise versions of the classes MA, AM and ZPP NP We extend our main result in several ways. For each k, we give an explicit language in (MA ∩ ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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We show that for each k> 0, MA/1 (MA with 1 bit of advice) doesn’t have circuits of size nk. This implies the first superlinear circuit lower bounds for the promise versions of the classes MA, AM and ZPP NP We extend our main result in several ways. For each k, we give an explicit language in (MA ∩ coMA)/1 which doesn’t have circuits of size nk. We also adapt our lower bound to the averagecase setting, i.e., we show that MA/1 cannot be solved on more than 1/2 + 1/nk fraction of inputs of length n by circuits of size nk. Furthermore, we prove that MA does not have arithmetic circuits of size nk for any k. As a corollary to our main result, we obtain that derandomization of MA with O(1) advice implies the existence of pseudorandom generators computable using O(1) bits of advice. 1
Hardness as randomness: A survey of universal derandomization
 in Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians
, 2002
"... We survey recent developments in the study of probabilistic complexity classes. While the evidence seems to support the conjecture that probabilism can be deterministically simulated with relatively low overhead, i.e., that P = BPP, it also indicates that this may be a difficult question to resolve. ..."
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Cited by 11 (5 self)
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We survey recent developments in the study of probabilistic complexity classes. While the evidence seems to support the conjecture that probabilism can be deterministically simulated with relatively low overhead, i.e., that P = BPP, it also indicates that this may be a difficult question to resolve. In fact, proving that probalistic algorithms have nontrivial deterministic simulations is basically equivalent to proving circuit lower bounds, either in the algebraic or Boolean models.
Oblivious Symmetric Alternation
"... We introduce a new class Op2 as a subclass of the symmetric alternation class Sp2. An Op2proof system has the flavor of an S p 2 proof system, but it is more restrictive in nature. Inan Sp 2 proof system, we have two competing provers and a verifier such that for any input,the honest prover has an i ..."
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Cited by 11 (4 self)
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We introduce a new class Op2 as a subclass of the symmetric alternation class Sp2. An Op2proof system has the flavor of an S p 2 proof system, but it is more restrictive in nature. Inan Sp 2 proof system, we have two competing provers and a verifier such that for any input,the honest prover has an irrefutable certificate. In an Op 2 proof system, we require that the irrefutable certificates depend only on the length of the input, not on the input itself. In other words, the irrefutable proofs are oblivious of the input. For this reason, we call the new class oblivious symmetric alternation. While this might seem slightly contrived, it turns out that this class helps us improve some existing results. For instance, we show that if NP ae P/poly then PH = Op 2, whereas the best known collapse under the same hypothesis was PH = S p 2. We also define classes YOp
Is P versus NP formally independent
 Bulletin of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science
, 2003
"... I have moved back to the University of Chicago and so has the web page for this column. See above for new URL and contact informaion. This issue Scott Aaronson writes quite an interesting (and opinionated) column on whether the P = NP question is independent of the usual axiom systems. Enjoy! ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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I have moved back to the University of Chicago and so has the web page for this column. See above for new URL and contact informaion. This issue Scott Aaronson writes quite an interesting (and opinionated) column on whether the P = NP question is independent of the usual axiom systems. Enjoy!
On Proving Circuit Lower Bounds Against the Polynomialtime Hierarchy: Positive and Negative Results
, 2008
"... We consider the problem of proving circuit lower bounds against the polynomialtime hierarchy. We give both positive and negative results. For the positive side, for any fixed integer k> 0, we give an explicit Σ p 2 language, acceptable by a Σp2machine with running time O(nk2 +k), that requires ci ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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We consider the problem of proving circuit lower bounds against the polynomialtime hierarchy. We give both positive and negative results. For the positive side, for any fixed integer k> 0, we give an explicit Σ p 2 language, acceptable by a Σp2machine with running time O(nk2 +k), that requires circuit size> nk. This provides a constructive version of an existence theorem of Kannan [Kan82]. Our main theorem is on the negative side. We give evidence that it is infeasible to give relativizable proofs that any single language in the polynomialtime hierarchy requires super polynomial circuit size. Our proof techniques are based on the decision tree version of the Switching Lemma for constant depth circuits and NisanWigderson pseudorandom generator.