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283
A progressive refinement approach to fast radiosity image generation
 Computer Graphics
, 1988
"... A reformulated radiosity algorithm is presented that produces initial images in time linear to the number of patches. The enormous memory costs of the radiosity algorithm are also eliminated by computing formfactors onthefly. The technique is based on the approach of rendering by progressive ref ..."
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Cited by 240 (5 self)
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A reformulated radiosity algorithm is presented that produces initial images in time linear to the number of patches. The enormous memory costs of the radiosity algorithm are also eliminated by computing formfactors onthefly. The technique is based on the approach of rendering by progressive refinement. The algorithm provides a useful solution almost immediately which progresses gracefully and continuously to the complete radiosity solution. In this way the competing demands of realism and interactivity are accommodated. The technique brings the use of radiosity for interactive rendering within reach and has implications for the use and development of current and future graphics workstations.
Towards image realism with interactive update rates in complex virtual building environments
 Computer Graphics (1990 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics
, 1990
"... Two strategies, precomputation before display and adaptive refinement during display, are used to combine interactivity with high image quality in a virtual building simulation. Precomputation is used in two ways. The hiddensurface problem is partially solved by automatically precomputing potent ..."
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Cited by 229 (1 self)
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Two strategies, precomputation before display and adaptive refinement during display, are used to combine interactivity with high image quality in a virtual building simulation. Precomputation is used in two ways. The hiddensurface problem is partially solved by automatically precomputing potentially visible sets of the model for sets of related viewpoints. Rendering only the potentially visible subset associated with the current viewpoint, rather than the entire model, produces significant speedups on real building models. Solutions for the radiosity lighting model are precomputed for up to twenty different sets of lights. Linear combinations of these solutions can be manipulated in real time. We use adaptive refinement to trade image realism for interactivity as the situation requires. When the user is stationary we replace a coarse model using few polygons with a more detailed model. Imagelevel linear interpolation smooths the transition between differing levels of image realism.
Allfrequency shadows using nonlinear wavelet lighting approximation
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2003
"... We present a method, based on precomputed light transport, for realtime rendering of objects under allfrequency, timevarying illumination represented as a highresolution environment map. Current techniques are limited to small area lights, with sharp shadows, or large lowfrequency lights, with ..."
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Cited by 159 (24 self)
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We present a method, based on precomputed light transport, for realtime rendering of objects under allfrequency, timevarying illumination represented as a highresolution environment map. Current techniques are limited to small area lights, with sharp shadows, or large lowfrequency lights, with very soft shadows. Our main contribution is to approximate the environment map in a wavelet basis, keeping only the largest terms (this is known as a nonlinear approximation). We obtain further compression by encoding the light transport matrix sparsely but accurately in the same basis. Rendering is performed by multiplying a sparse light vector by a sparse transport matrix, which is very fast. For accurate rendering, using nonlinear wavelets is an order of magnitude faster than using linear spherical harmonics, the current best technique.
Wavelet Radiosity
, 1993
"... Radiosity methods have been shown to be an effective means to solve the global illumination problem in Lambertian diffuse environments. These methods approximate the radiosity integral equation by projecting the unknown radiosity function into a set of basis functions with limited support resulting ..."
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Cited by 149 (10 self)
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Radiosity methods have been shown to be an effective means to solve the global illumination problem in Lambertian diffuse environments. These methods approximate the radiosity integral equation by projecting the unknown radiosity function into a set of basis functions with limited support resulting in a set of n linear equations where n is the number of discrete elements in the scene. Classical radiosity methods required the evaluation of n 2 interaction coefficients. Efforts to reduce the number of required coefficients without compromising error bounds have focused on raising the order of the basis functions, meshing, accounting for discontinuities, and on developing hierarchical approaches, which have been shown to reduce the required interactions to O(n). In this paper we show that the hierarchical radiosity formulation is an instance of a more general set of methods based on wavelet theory. This general framework offers a unified view of both higher order element approaches to...
A survey of shadow algorithms
 IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
, 1990
"... Essential to realistic and visually appealing images, shadows are difficult ta compute in most display environments. This survey characterizes the various types of shadows. It also describes most existing shadow algorithms and discusses their complexities, advantages, and shommings. We examine herd ..."
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Cited by 127 (3 self)
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Essential to realistic and visually appealing images, shadows are difficult ta compute in most display environments. This survey characterizes the various types of shadows. It also describes most existing shadow algorithms and discusses their complexities, advantages, and shommings. We examine herd shadows, soft shadbws, shadows of transparent objects, and shadows for complex modeling primitives. For each type, we examine shadow algorithms within various rendswing techniques. This survey attempts to provide readem with enough background and insight on the various rmthods to dow them to choose the algorithm best wpuited to their W. We also hope that our analysis will h&p identify the a m that need more research and point bo possible sotutkms. A shadowa region of relative darkness within an not necessarily attenuate the light it occludes. In fact, illuminated regionoccurs when an object totally or it can concentrate light. However, as is traditional in partially occludes the light. A transparent object does image synthesis, lve will consider a region to be in
A progressive multipass method for global illumination
 Computer Graphics
, 1991
"... A new progressive global illumination method is presented which produces approximate images quickly, and then continues to systematically produce more accurate images. The method combines the existing methods of progressive refinement radiosity, Monte Carlo path tracing and light ray tracing. The me ..."
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Cited by 113 (3 self)
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A new progressive global illumination method is presented which produces approximate images quickly, and then continues to systematically produce more accurate images. The method combines the existing methods of progressive refinement radiosity, Monte Carlo path tracing and light ray tracing. The method does not place any limitation on surface properties such as ideal Lambertian or mirrorlike. To increase efficiency and accuracy, the new concepts of light source reclassification, caustics reconstruction, Monte Carlo path tracing with a radiosity preprocess and an interruptible radiosity solution are introduced. The method presents the user with most useful information about the scene as early as possible by reorganizing the method into a radiosity pass, a high frequency refinement pass and a low frequency refinement pass. The implementation of the method is demonstrated, and sample images are presented.
Fast Calculation of Soft Shadow Textures Using Convolution
, 1998
"... The calculation of detailed shadows remains one of the most difficult challenges in computer graphics, especially in the case of extended (linear or area) light sources. This paper introduces a new tool for the calculation of shadows cast by extended light sources. Exact shadows are computed in some ..."
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Cited by 109 (6 self)
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The calculation of detailed shadows remains one of the most difficult challenges in computer graphics, especially in the case of extended (linear or area) light sources. This paper introduces a new tool for the calculation of shadows cast by extended light sources. Exact shadows are computed in some constrained configurations by using a convolution technique, yielding a fast and accurate solution. Approximate shadows can be computed for general configurations by applying the convolution to a representative "ideal" configuration. We analyze the various sources of approximation in the process and derive a hierarchical, errordriven algorithm for fast shadow calculation in arbitrary configurations using a hierarchy of object clusters. The convolution is performed on images rendered in an offscreen buffer and produces a shadow map used as a texture to modulate the unoccluded illumination. Light sources can have any 3D shape as well as arbitrary emission characteristics, while shadow maps can be applied to groups of objects at once. The method can be employed in a hierarchical radiosity system, or directly as a shadowing technique. We demonstrate results for various scenes, showing that soft shadows can be generated at interactive rates for dynamic environments.
Combining Hierarchical Radiosity and Discontinuity Meshing
, 1993
"... We introduce a new approach for the computation of viewindependent solutions to the diffuse global illumination problem in polyhedral environments. The approach combines ideas from hierarchical radiosity and discontinuity meshing to yield solutions that are accurate both numerically and visually. Fi ..."
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Cited by 107 (9 self)
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We introduce a new approach for the computation of viewindependent solutions to the diffuse global illumination problem in polyhedral environments. The approach combines ideas from hierarchical radiosity and discontinuity meshing to yield solutions that are accurate both numerically and visually. First, we describe a modified hierarchical radiosity algorithm that uses a discontinuitydriven subdivision strategy to achieve better numerical accuracy and faster convergence. Second, we present a new algorithm based on discontinuity meshing that uses the hierarchical solution to reconstruct an objectspace approximation to the radiance function that is visually accurate. Our results show significant improvements over both hierarchical radiosity and discontinuity meshing algorithms.
The Visibility Skeleton: A Powerful And Efficient MultiPurpose Global Visibility Tool
, 1997
"... Many problems in computer graphics and computer vision require accurate global visibility information. Previous approaches have typically been complicated to implement and numerically unstable, and often too expensive in storage or computation. The Visibility Skeleton is a new powerful utility which ..."
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Cited by 91 (6 self)
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Many problems in computer graphics and computer vision require accurate global visibility information. Previous approaches have typically been complicated to implement and numerically unstable, and often too expensive in storage or computation. The Visibility Skeleton is a new powerful utility which can efficiently and accurately answer visibility queries for the entire scene. The Visibility Skeleton is a multipurpose tool, which can solve numerous different problems. A simple construction algorithm is presented which only requires the use of well known computer graphics algorithmic components such as raycasting and line/plane intersections. We provide an exhaustive catalogue of visual events which completely encode all possible visibility changes of a polygonal scene into a graph structure. The nodes of the graph are extremal stabbing lines, and the arcs are critical line swaths. Our implementation demonstrates the construction of the Visibility Skeleton for scenes of over a thousan...
Discontinuity Meshing for Radiosity
 Third Eurographics Workshop on Rendering
, 1992
"... The radiosity method is the most popular algorithm for simulating interreflection of light between diffuse surfaces. Most existing radiosity algorithms employ simple meshes and piecewise constant approximations, thereby constraining the radiosity function to be constant across each polygonal element ..."
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Cited by 90 (2 self)
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The radiosity method is the most popular algorithm for simulating interreflection of light between diffuse surfaces. Most existing radiosity algorithms employ simple meshes and piecewise constant approximations, thereby constraining the radiosity function to be constant across each polygonal element. Much more accurate simulations are possible if linear, quadratic, or higher degree approximations are used. In order to realize the potential accuracy of higherdegree approximations, however, it is necessary for the radiosity mesh to resolve discontinuities such as shadow edges in the radiosity function. A discontinuity meshing algorithm is presented that places mesh boundaries directly along discontinuities. Such algorithms offer the potential of faster, more accurate simulations. Results are shown for threedimensional scenes. Keywords: global illumination, diffuse interreflection, adaptive mesh, shadow. 1 Introduction One of the most challenging tasks of image synthesis in computer ...