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A provable time and space efficient implementation of nesl
 In International Conference on Functional Programming
, 1996
"... In this paper we prove time and space bounds for the implementation of the programming language NESL on various parallel machine models. NESL is a sugared typed Jcalculus with a set of array primitives and an explicit parallel map over arrays. Our results extend previous work on provable implementa ..."
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Cited by 71 (7 self)
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In this paper we prove time and space bounds for the implementation of the programming language NESL on various parallel machine models. NESL is a sugared typed Jcalculus with a set of array primitives and an explicit parallel map over arrays. Our results extend previous work on provable implementation bounds for functional languages by considering space and by including arrays. For modeling the cost of NESL we augment a standard callbyvalue operational semantics to return two cost measures: a DAG representing the sequential dependence in the computation, and a measure of the space taken by a sequential implementation. We show that a NESL program with w work (nodes in the DAG), d depth (levels in the DAG), and s sequential space can be implemented on a p processor butterfly network, hypercube, or CRCW PRAM usin O(w/p + d log p) time and 0(s + dp logp) reachable space. For programs with sufficient parallelism these bounds are optimal in that they give linew speedup and use space within a constant factor of the sequential space. 1
A cost calculus for parallel functional programming
 Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing
, 1995
"... Abstract Building a cost calculus for a parallel program development environment is difficult because of the many degrees of freedom available in parallel implementations, and because of difficulties with compositionality. We present a strategy for building cost calculi for skeletonbased programmin ..."
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Cited by 58 (6 self)
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Abstract Building a cost calculus for a parallel program development environment is difficult because of the many degrees of freedom available in parallel implementations, and because of difficulties with compositionality. We present a strategy for building cost calculi for skeletonbased programming languages which can be used for derivational software development and which deals in a pragmatic way with the difficulties of composition. The approach is illustrated for the BirdMeertens theory of lists, a parallel functional language with an associated equational transformation system. Keywords: functional programming, parallel programming, program transformation, cost calculus, equational theories, architecture independence, BirdMeertens formalism.
Static dependent costs for estimating execution time
 In Proc. of the 1994 ACM Conference on LISP and functional programming
, 1994
"... We present the first system for estimating and using datadependent expression execution times in a language with firstclass procedures and imperative constructs. Thepresence of firstclass procedures and imperative constructs makes cost estimation a global problem that can benefit from type informa ..."
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Cited by 46 (0 self)
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We present the first system for estimating and using datadependent expression execution times in a language with firstclass procedures and imperative constructs. Thepresence of firstclass procedures and imperative constructs makes cost estimation a global problem that can benefit from type information. We estimate expression costs with the aid of an algebraic type reconstruction system that assigns every procedure atype that includes a static dependent cost. A static dependent cost describes the execution time of a procedure in terms of its inputs. In particular, a procedure’s static dependent cost can depend on the size of input data structures and the cost of input firstclass procedures. Our cost system produces symbolic cost expressions that contain free variables describing the size and cost of the procedure’s inputs. At runtime, a cost estimate is dynamically computed from the statically determined cost expression and runtime cost and size information. We present experimental results that validate our cost system onthreecompilers and architectures. We experimentally demonstrate the utility of cost estimates in making dynamic parallelization decisions. In our experience, dynamic parallelization meets or exceeds the parallel performance of any fixed number of processors. 1
The BirdMeertens Formalism as a Parallel Model
 Software for Parallel Computation, volume 106 of NATO ASI Series F
, 1993
"... The expense of developing and maintaining software is the major obstacle to the routine use of parallel computation. Architecture independent programming offers a way of avoiding the problem, but the requirements for a model of parallel computation that will permit it are demanding. The BirdMeertens ..."
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Cited by 41 (0 self)
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The expense of developing and maintaining software is the major obstacle to the routine use of parallel computation. Architecture independent programming offers a way of avoiding the problem, but the requirements for a model of parallel computation that will permit it are demanding. The BirdMeertens formalism is an approach to developing and executing dataparallel programs; it encourages software development by equational transformation; it can be implemented efficiently across a wide range of architecture families; and it can be equipped with a realistic cost calculus, so that tradeoffs in software design can be explored before implementation. It makes an ideal model of parallel computation. Keywords: General purpose parallel computing, models of parallel computation, architecture independent programming, categorical data type, program transformation, code generation. 1 Properties of Models of Parallel Computation Parallel computation is still the domain of researchers and those ...
A Naïve Time Analysis and its Theory of Cost Equivalence
 Journal of Logic and Computation
, 1995
"... Techniques for reasoning about extensional properties of functional programs are well understood, but methods for analysing the underlying intensional or operational properties have been much neglected. This paper begins with the development of a simple but useful calculus for time analysis of nons ..."
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Cited by 39 (7 self)
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Techniques for reasoning about extensional properties of functional programs are well understood, but methods for analysing the underlying intensional or operational properties have been much neglected. This paper begins with the development of a simple but useful calculus for time analysis of nonstrict functional programs with lazy lists. One limitation of this basic calculus is that the ordinary equational reasoning on functional programs is not valid. In order to buy back some of these equational properties we develop a nonstandard operational equivalence relation called cost equivalence, by considering the number of computation steps as an `observable' component of the evaluation process. We define this relation by analogy with Park's definition of bisimulation in CCS. This formulation allows us to show that cost equivalence is a contextual congruence (and thus is substitutive with respect to the basic calculus) and provides useful proof techniques for establishing costequivalen...
Binding Time Analysis: A New PERspective
 In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Partial Evaluation and SemanticsBased Program Manipulation (PEPM'91
, 1991
"... Given a description of the parameters in a program that will be known at partial evaluation time, a binding time analysis must determine which parts of the program are dependent solely on these known parts (and therefore also known at partial evaluation time). In this paper a binding time analysis f ..."
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Cited by 34 (6 self)
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Given a description of the parameters in a program that will be known at partial evaluation time, a binding time analysis must determine which parts of the program are dependent solely on these known parts (and therefore also known at partial evaluation time). In this paper a binding time analysis for the simply typed lambda calculus is presented. The analysis takes the form of an abstract interpretation and uses a novel formalisation of the problem of binding time analysis, based on the use of partial equivalence relations. A simple proof of correctness is achieved by the use of logical relations. 1 Introduction Given a description of the parameters in a program that will be known at partial evaluation time, a binding time analysis must determine which parts of the program are dependent solely on these known parts (and therefore also known at partial evaluation time). A binding time analysis performed prior to the partial evaluation process can have several practical benefits (see [...
Automatic timebound analysis for a higherorder language
 In Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 2002 Workshop on Partial Evaluation and SemanticsBased Program Manipulation
, 2002
"... Analysis of program running time is important for reactive systems, interactive environments, compiler optimizations, performance evaluation, and many other computer applications. It has been extensively studied in many elds of computer science: algorithms [21, 12, 13,40], programming languages [38, ..."
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Cited by 23 (5 self)
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Analysis of program running time is important for reactive systems, interactive environments, compiler optimizations, performance evaluation, and many other computer applications. It has been extensively studied in many elds of computer science: algorithms [21, 12, 13,40], programming languages [38, 22,31, 35, 34], and systems [36, 29,33,32]. Being able to predict accurate time bounds automatically and e ciently
Operational Theories of Improvement in Functional Languages (Extended Abstract)
 In Proceedings of the Fourth Glasgow Workshop on Functional Programming
, 1991
"... ) David Sands y Department of Computing, Imperial College 180 Queens Gate, London SW7 2BZ email: ds@uk.ac.ic.doc Abstract In this paper we address the technical foundations essential to the aim of providing a semantic basis for the formal treatment of relative efficiency in functional langu ..."
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Cited by 21 (9 self)
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) David Sands y Department of Computing, Imperial College 180 Queens Gate, London SW7 2BZ email: ds@uk.ac.ic.doc Abstract In this paper we address the technical foundations essential to the aim of providing a semantic basis for the formal treatment of relative efficiency in functional languages. For a general class of "functional" computation systems, we define a family of improvement preorderings which express, in a variety of ways, when one expression is more efficient than another. The main results of this paper build on Howe's study of equality in lazy computation systems, and are concerned with the question of when a given improvement relation is subject to the usual forms of (in)equational reasoning (so that, for example, we can improve an expression by improving any subexpression). For a general class of computation systems we establish conditions on the operators of the language which guarantee that an improvement relation is a precongruence. In addition, for...
Cost Recurrences for DML Programs
, 2001
"... A cost recurrence describes an upper bound for the running time of a program in terms of the size of its input. Finding cost recurrences is a frequent intermediate step in complexity analysis, and this step requires an abstraction from data to data size. In this article, we use information contained ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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A cost recurrence describes an upper bound for the running time of a program in terms of the size of its input. Finding cost recurrences is a frequent intermediate step in complexity analysis, and this step requires an abstraction from data to data size. In this article, we use information contained in dependent types to achieve such an abstraction: Dependent ML (DML), a conservative extension of ML, provides dependent types that can be used to associate data with size information, thus describing a possible abstraction. We systematically extract cost recurrences from firstorder DML programs, guiding the abstraction from data to data size with information contained in DML type derivations.
A Provably TimeEfficient Parallel Implementation of Full Speculation
 In Proceedings of the 23rd ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 1996
"... Speculative evaluation, including leniency and futures, is often used to produce high degrees of parallelism. Existing speculative implementations, however, may serialize computation because of their implementation of queues of suspended threads. We give a provably efficient parallel implementation ..."
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Cited by 17 (5 self)
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Speculative evaluation, including leniency and futures, is often used to produce high degrees of parallelism. Existing speculative implementations, however, may serialize computation because of their implementation of queues of suspended threads. We give a provably efficient parallel implementation of a speculative functional language on various machine models. The implementation includes proper parallelization of the necessary queuing operations on suspended threads. Our target machine models are a butterfly network, hypercube, and PRAM. To prove the efficiency of our implementation, we provide a cost model using a profiling semantics and relate the cost model to implementations on the parallel machine models. 1 Introduction Futures, lenient languages, and several implementations of graph reduction for lazy languages all use speculative evaluation (callbyspeculation [15]) to expose parallelism. The basic idea of speculative evaluation, in this context, is that the evaluation of a...