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36
A Linguistic Characterization of Bounded Oracle Computation and Probabilistic Polynomial Time
, 1998
"... We present a higherorder functional notation for polynomialtime computation with an arbitrary 0, 1valued oracle. This formulation provides a linguistic characterization for classes such as NP and BPP, as well as a notation for probabilistic polynomialtime functions. The language is derived from H ..."
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Cited by 25 (9 self)
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We present a higherorder functional notation for polynomialtime computation with an arbitrary 0, 1valued oracle. This formulation provides a linguistic characterization for classes such as NP and BPP, as well as a notation for probabilistic polynomialtime functions. The language is derived from Hofmann 's adaptation of BellantoniCook safe recursion, extended to oracle computation via work derived from that of Kapron and Cook. Like Hofmann's language, ours is an applied typed lambda calculus with complexity bounds enforced by a type system. The type system uses a modal operator to distinguish between two sorts of numerical expressions. Recursion can take place on only one of these sorts. The proof that the language captures precisely oracle polynomial time is modeltheoretic, using adaptations of various techniques from category theory.
Theories With SelfApplication and Computational Complexity
 Information and Computation
, 2002
"... Applicative theories form the basis of Feferman's systems of explicit mathematics, which have been introduced in the early seventies. In an applicative universe, all individuals may be thought of as operations, which can freely be applied to each other: selfapplication is meaningful, but n ..."
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Cited by 12 (9 self)
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Applicative theories form the basis of Feferman's systems of explicit mathematics, which have been introduced in the early seventies. In an applicative universe, all individuals may be thought of as operations, which can freely be applied to each other: selfapplication is meaningful, but not necessarily total. It has turned out that theories with selfapplication provide a natural setting for studying notions of abstract computability, especially from a prooftheoretic perspective.
Semantics vs. Syntax vs. Computations  Machine Models For Type2 . . .
 JOURNAL OF COMPUTER AND SYSTEM SCIENCE
, 1997
"... This paper investigates analogs of the KreiselLacombeShoenfield Theorem in the context of the type2 basic feasible functionals. We develop a direct, polynomialtime analog of effective operation in which the time boundingon computations is modeled after Kapron and Cook's scheme for their bas ..."
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Cited by 10 (0 self)
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This paper investigates analogs of the KreiselLacombeShoenfield Theorem in the context of the type2 basic feasible functionals. We develop a direct, polynomialtime analog of effective operation in which the time boundingon computations is modeled after Kapron and Cook's scheme for their basic polynomialtime functionals. We show that if P = NP, these polynomialtime effective operations are strictly more powerful on R (the class of recursive functions) than the basic feasible functions. We also consider a weaker notion of polynomialtime effective operation where the machines computing these functionals have access to the computations of their procedural parameter, but not to its program text. For this version of polynomialtime effective operations, the analog of the KreiselLacombeShoenfield is shown to holdtheir power matches that of the basic feasible functionals on R.
Full Abstraction, Totality and PCF
 Math. Structures Comput. Sci
, 1997
"... ion, Totality and PCF Gordon Plotkin Abstract Inspired by a question of Riecke, we consider the interaction of totality and full abstraction, asking whether full abstraction holds for Scott's model of cpos and continuous functions if one restricts to total programs and total observations. ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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ion, Totality and PCF Gordon Plotkin Abstract Inspired by a question of Riecke, we consider the interaction of totality and full abstraction, asking whether full abstraction holds for Scott's model of cpos and continuous functions if one restricts to total programs and total observations. The answer is negative, as there are distinct operational and denotational notions of totality. However, when two terms are each total in both senses then they are totally equivalent operationally iff they are totally equivalent in the Scott model. Analysing further, we consider sequential and parallel versions of PCF and several models: Scott's model of continuous functions, Milner's fully abstract model of PCF and their effective submodels. We investigate how totality differs between these models. Some apparently rather difficult open problems arise, essentially concerning whether the sequential and parallel versions of PCF have the same expressive power, in the sense of total equivale...
A Tight Relationship between Generic Oracles and Type2 Complexity Theory
, 1997
"... We show that any two complexity classes satisfying some general conditions are distinct relative to a generic oracle iff the corresponding type2 classes are distinct. ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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We show that any two complexity classes satisfying some general conditions are distinct relative to a generic oracle iff the corresponding type2 classes are distinct.
A ProofTheoretic Characterization of the Basic Feasible Functionals
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2002
"... We provide a natural characterization of the type two MehlhornCookUrquhart basic feasible functionals as the provably total type two functionals of our (classical) applicative theory PT introduced in [27], thus providing a proof of a result claimed in the conclusion of [27]. ..."
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Cited by 7 (6 self)
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We provide a natural characterization of the type two MehlhornCookUrquhart basic feasible functionals as the provably total type two functionals of our (classical) applicative theory PT introduced in [27], thus providing a proof of a result claimed in the conclusion of [27].
Complexity Theory for Operators in Analysis
"... We propose a new framework for discussing computational complexity of problems involving uncountably many objects, such as real numbers, sets and functions, that can be represented only by approximation. The key idea is to use a certain class of string functions, which we call regular functions, as ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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We propose a new framework for discussing computational complexity of problems involving uncountably many objects, such as real numbers, sets and functions, that can be represented only by approximation. The key idea is to use a certain class of string functions, which we call regular functions, as names representing these objects. These are more expressive than infinite sequences, which served as names in prior work that formulated complexity in more restricted settings. An important advantage of using regular functions is that we can define their size in the way inspired by highertype complexity theory. This enables us to talk about computation on regular functions whose time or space is bounded polynomially in the input size, giving rise to more general analogues of the classes P, NP, and PSPACE. We also define NP and PSPACEcompleteness under suitable manyone reductions. Because our framework separates machine computation and semantics, it can be applied to problems on sets of interest in analysis once we specify a suitable representation (encoding). As prototype applications, we consider the complexity of functions (operators) on real numbers, real sets, and real functions. The latter two cannot be represented succinctly using existing approaches based on infinite sequences, so ours is the first treatment of them. As an interesting example, the task of numerical algorithms for solving the initial value problem of differential equations is naturally viewed as an operator taking real functions to real functions. As there was no complexity theory for operators, previous results could only state how complex the solution can be. We now reformulate them to show that the operator itself is polynomialspace complete.
Asymptotic behaviors of type2 algorithms and induced baire topologies
 In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Theoretical Computer Science
, 2004
"... Abstract We propose an alternative notion of asymptotic behaviors for the study of type2 computational complexity. Since the classical asymptotic notion (for all but finitely many) is not acceptable in type2 context, we alter the notion of “small sets ” from “finiteness ” to topological “compactne ..."
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Cited by 4 (4 self)
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Abstract We propose an alternative notion of asymptotic behaviors for the study of type2 computational complexity. Since the classical asymptotic notion (for all but finitely many) is not acceptable in type2 context, we alter the notion of “small sets ” from “finiteness ” to topological “compactness ” for type2 complexity theory. A natural reference for type2 computations is the standard Baire topology. However, we point out some serious drawbacks of this and introduce an alternative topology for describing compact sets. Following our notion explicit type2 complexity classes can be defined in terms of resource bounds. We show that such complexity classes are recursively representable; namely, every complexity class has a programming system. We also prove type2 analogs of Rabin’s Theorem, Recursive Relatedness Theorem, and Gap Theorem to provide evidence that our notion of type2 asymptotic is workable. We speculate that our investigation will give rise to a possible approach in examining the complexity structure at type2 along the line of the classical complexity theory. Keywords: Type2 Complexity, Type2 Asymptotic Notation, Baire Topology. 1.
Weak theories of operations and types
"... This is a survey paper on various weak systems of Feferman’s explicit mathematics and their proof theory. The strength of the systems considered in measured in terms of their provably terminating operations typically belonging to some natural classes of computational time or space complexity. Keywor ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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This is a survey paper on various weak systems of Feferman’s explicit mathematics and their proof theory. The strength of the systems considered in measured in terms of their provably terminating operations typically belonging to some natural classes of computational time or space complexity. Keywords: Proof theory, Feferman’s explicit mathematics, applicative theories, higher types, types and names, partial truth, feasible operations 1
Adventures in time and space
 33th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 2006
"... Abstract. This paper investigates what is essentially a callbyvalue version of PCF under a complexitytheoretically motivated type system. The programming formalism, ATR, has its firstorder programs characterize the polynomialtime computable functions, and its secondorder programs characterize ..."
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Cited by 3 (3 self)
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Abstract. This paper investigates what is essentially a callbyvalue version of PCF under a complexitytheoretically motivated type system. The programming formalism, ATR, has its firstorder programs characterize the polynomialtime computable functions, and its secondorder programs characterize the type2 basic feasible functionals of Mehlhorn and of Cook and Urquhart. (The ATRtypes are confined to levels 0, 1, and 2.) The type system comes in two parts, one that primarily restricts the sizes of values of expressions and a second that primarily restricts the time required to evaluate expressions. The sizerestricted part is motivated by Bellantoni and Cook’s and Leivant’s implicit characterizations of polynomialtime. The timerestricting part is an affine version of Barber and Plotkin’s DILL. Two semantics are constructed for ATR. The first is a pruning of the naïve denotational semantics for ATR. This pruning removes certain functions that cause otherwise feasible forms of recursion to go wrong. The second semantics is a model for ATR’s time complexity relative to a certain abstract machine. This model provides a setting for complexity recurrences arising from ATR recursions, the solutions of which yield secondorder polynomial time bounds. The timecomplexity semantics is also shown to be sound relative to the costs of interpretation on the abstract machine. 1.