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The neural basis of cognitive development: A constructivist manifesto
 Behavioral and Brain Sciences
, 1997
"... Quartz, S. & Sejnowski, T.J. (1997). The neural basis of cognitive development: A constructivist manifesto. ..."
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Cited by 128 (2 self)
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Quartz, S. & Sejnowski, T.J. (1997). The neural basis of cognitive development: A constructivist manifesto.
Language Acquisition in the Absence of Explicit Negative Evidence: How Important is Starting Small?
 COGNITION
, 1999
"... It is commonly assumed that innate linguistic constraints are necessary to learn a natural language, based on the apparent lack of explicit negative evidence provided to children and on Gold's proof that, under assumptions of virtually arbitrary positive presentation, most interesting classes of ..."
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Cited by 68 (6 self)
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It is commonly assumed that innate linguistic constraints are necessary to learn a natural language, based on the apparent lack of explicit negative evidence provided to children and on Gold's proof that, under assumptions of virtually arbitrary positive presentation, most interesting classes of languages are not learnable. However, Gold's results do not apply under the rather common assumption that language presentation may be modeled as a stochastic process. Indeed, Elman (Elman, J.L., 1993. Learning and development in neural networks: the importance of starting small. Cognition 48, 7199) demonstrated that a simple recurrent connectionist network could learn an artificial grammar with some of the complexities of English, including embedded clauses, based on performing a word prediction task within a stochastic environment. However, the network was successful only when either embedded sentences were initially withheld and only later introduced gradually, or when the network itself was given initially limited memory which only gradually improved. This finding has been taken as support for Newport's `less is more' proposal, that child language acquisition may be aided rather than hindered by limited cognitive resources. The current article reports on connectionist simulations which indicate, to the contrary, that starting with simplified inputs or limited memory is not necessary in training recurrent networks to learn pseudonatural languages; in fact, such restrictions hinder acquisition as the languages are made more Englishlike by the introduction of semantic as well as syntactic constraints. We suggest that, under a statistical model of the language environment, Gold's theorem and the possible lack of explicit negative evidence do not implicate i...
Language as Shaped by the Brain
"... It is widely assumed that human learning and the structure of human languages are intimately related. This relationship is frequently suggested to be rooted in a languagespecific biological endowment, which encodes universal, but arbitrary, principles of language structure (a universal grammar or U ..."
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Cited by 48 (16 self)
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It is widely assumed that human learning and the structure of human languages are intimately related. This relationship is frequently suggested to be rooted in a languagespecific biological endowment, which encodes universal, but arbitrary, principles of language structure (a universal grammar or UG). How might such a UG have evolved? We argue that UG could not have arisen either by biological adaptation or nonadaptationist genetic processes. The resulting puzzle concerning the origin of UG we call the logical problem of language evolution. Because the processes of language change are much more rapid than processes of genetic change, language constitutes a “moving target ” both over time and across different human populations, and hence cannot provide a stable environment to which UG genes could have adapted. We conclude that a biologically determined UG is not evolutionarily viable. Instead, the original motivation for UG—the mesh between learners and languages—arises because language has been shaped to fit the human brain, rather than vice versa. Following Darwin, we view language itself as a complex and interdependent “organism, ” which evolves under selectional pressures from human learning and processing mechanisms. That is, languages are themselves undergoing severe selectional pressure from each generation of language users and learners. This suggests that apparently arbitrary aspects of linguistic structure may result from general learning and processing biases, independent of language. We illustrate how this framework can integrate evidence from different literatures and methodologies to explain core linguistic phenomena, including binding constraints, word order universals, and diachronic language change. 1.
On the Structure of Degrees of Inferability
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1993
"... Degrees of inferability have been introduced to measure the learning power of inductive inference machines which have access to an oracle. The classical concept of degrees of unsolvability measures the computing power of oracles. In this paper we determine the relationship between both notions. ..."
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Cited by 32 (19 self)
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Degrees of inferability have been introduced to measure the learning power of inductive inference machines which have access to an oracle. The classical concept of degrees of unsolvability measures the computing power of oracles. In this paper we determine the relationship between both notions. 1 Introduction We consider learning of classes of recursive functions within the framework of inductive inference [21]. A recent theme is the study of inductive inference machines with oracles ([8, 10, 11, 17, 24] and tangentially [12]; cf. [10] for a comprehensive introduction and a collection of all previous results.) The basic question is how the information content of the oracle (technically: its Turing degree) relates with its learning power (technically: its inference degreedepending on the underlying inference criterion). In this paper a definitive answer is obtained for the case of recursively enumerable oracles and the case when only finitely many queries to the oracle are allo...
A version space approach to learning contextfree grammars
 Machine Learning
, 1987
"... learning from examples. Abstract. In principle, the version space approach can be applied to any induction problem. However, in some cases the representation language for generalizations is so powerful that (1) some of the update functions for the version space are not effectively computable, and (2 ..."
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Cited by 32 (0 self)
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learning from examples. Abstract. In principle, the version space approach can be applied to any induction problem. However, in some cases the representation language for generalizations is so powerful that (1) some of the update functions for the version space are not effectively computable, and (2) the version space contains infinitely many generalizations. The class of contextfree grammars is a simple representation that exhibits these problems. This paper presents an algorithm that solves both problems for this domain. Given a sequence of strings, the algorithm incrementally constructs a data structure that has nearly all the beneficial properties of a version space. The algorithm is fast enough to solve small induction problems completely, and it serves as a framework for biases that permit the solution of larger problems heuristically. The same basic approach may be applied to representations that include contextfree grammars as special cases, such as AndOr graphs, production systems, and Horn clauses. 1.
Learning Recursive Functions from Approximations
, 1995
"... Investigated is algorithmic learning, in the limit, of correct programs for recursive functions f from both input/output examples of f and several interesting varieties of approximate additional (algorithmic) information about f . Specifically considered, as such approximate additional informatio ..."
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Cited by 17 (7 self)
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Investigated is algorithmic learning, in the limit, of correct programs for recursive functions f from both input/output examples of f and several interesting varieties of approximate additional (algorithmic) information about f . Specifically considered, as such approximate additional information about f , are Rose's frequency computations for f and several natural generalizations from the literature, each generalization involving programs for restricted trees of recursive functions which have f as a branch. Considered as the types of trees are those with bounded variation, bounded width, and bounded rank. For the case of learning final correct programs for recursive functions, EX learning, where the additional information involves frequency computations, an insightful and interestingly complex combinatorial characterization of learning power is presented as a function of the frequency parameters. For EX learning (as well as for BClearning, where a final sequence of cor...
On abstract computer virology from a recursion theoretic perspective
 Journal in Computer Virology
, 2006
"... ..."
Angluin's Theorem for Indexed Families of R.e. Sets and Applications
, 1996
"... We extend Angluin's (1980) theorem to characterize identifiability of indexed families of r.e. languages, as opposed to indexed families of recursive languages. We also prove some variants characterizing conservativity and two other similar restrictions, paralleling Zeugmann, Lange, and Kapur's (199 ..."
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Cited by 14 (0 self)
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We extend Angluin's (1980) theorem to characterize identifiability of indexed families of r.e. languages, as opposed to indexed families of recursive languages. We also prove some variants characterizing conservativity and two other similar restrictions, paralleling Zeugmann, Lange, and Kapur's (1992, 1995) results for indexed families of recursive languages. 1 Introduction A significant portion of the work of recent years in the field of inductive inference of formal languages, as initiated by Gold 1967, stems from Angluin's (1980b) theorem, which characterizes when an indexed family of recursive languages is identifiable in the limit from positive data in the sense of Gold. Up until around 1980, a prevalent view had been that inductive inference from positive data is too weak to be of much theoretical interest. This misconception was due to the negative result in Gold's original paper, which says that any class of languages that contains every finite language and at least one infini...
The Informational Complexity of Learning from Examples
, 1996
"... This thesis attempts to quantify the amount of information needed to learn certain tasks. The tasks chosen vary from learning functions in a Sobolev space using radial basis function networks to learning grammars in the principles and parameters framework of modern linguistic theory. These problem ..."
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Cited by 13 (4 self)
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This thesis attempts to quantify the amount of information needed to learn certain tasks. The tasks chosen vary from learning functions in a Sobolev space using radial basis function networks to learning grammars in the principles and parameters framework of modern linguistic theory. These problems are analyzed from the perspective of computational learning theory and certain unifying perspectives emerge. Copyright c fl Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1996 This report describes research done within the Center for Biological and Computational Learning in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This research is sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation under contract ASC9217041 (this award includes funds from ARPA provided under the HPCC program); and by a grant from ARPA/ONR under contract N0001492J1879. Additional support has been provided by Siemens Co...